Geography – India

Delhi Law Academy


About 65-70% of people in India are engaged in agriculture. About 142.42 million hectares, or just above 50% of the total geographical area of the country is under cultivation.

Crop Seasons

There are two major crop seasons in India, viz.,

  1. Kharif
  2. Rabi
Crop Sown in Harvested Examples
Kharif June/July      September/October Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Maize, Cotton and Jute
Rabi October/December          April/May Wheat, Barley, Peas, Rapeseed, Mustard and Grams

Green Revolution

The green revolution was launched in 1967-68 to improve agricultural productivity in two phases:

  1. First Green Revolution: Mainly confined to the progressive wheat producing states of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh.
  2. Second Green Revolution: In 1983-84 the green revolution was extended to eastern and central states including West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

As a result of the green revolution, wheat production more than doubled and rice production increased by 53%.

Dairy Farming

  1. Operation Flood-I(1970-81): In collaboration with the World Bank, Operation Flood-I was launched with the intention of capturing a commanding share of the liquid milk market in the metropolitan cities.
  2. Operation Flood-11 (1981-85): It was launched in 1981 and extended to almost all states.
  3. Operation Flood-Ill (1985-90): It was launched in 1985 under the Seventh Five Year Plan.

The programmes were implemented under the aegis of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and the Indian Dairy Corporation (IDC).

As a result of these programmes, India has become largest milk producer in the world. With the increase in per capita availability of dairy milk from 107 gm to 232 gm, the country is beginning to face the problem of surplus.


Methods of Irrigation

  1. Wells: Used mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, accounting for about 48% of the total irrigated area in the country.
  2. Tanks: Used in central and southern India, especially in Andhra Pradesh. About 10% of total irrigated area is irrigated by tanks.
  3. Canals: Major source of irrigation in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. About 40% of total irrigated area is irrigated by canals.