FIRST-AID IN SPORTS
• Accidents are a common feature across all sports. No matter, how much caution players take, it is impossible to avoid accidents in sports, be it amateur level or professional level.
• These accidents may result in injury to players and since, there is lack of availability of medical expert, the knowledge of first-aid comes in handy.
Definition of First-Aid:
First Aid is the initial assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor, or other qualified personnel.
• First-Aid is usually performed by a Non-Expert person
• It involves simple procedures
• It requires minimum equipment to carry out.
Aims of First-Aid:
• Primary aim is to prevent the casualty’s condition from becoming worse.
• To give immediate care and relief from pain.
• To preserve life.
• To promote recovery.
Types of Sports Injuries:
There are two kinds of sports injuries: acute and chronic.
• Acute Injury: An injury that occurs suddenly, such as a sprained ankle caused by an awkward landing, is known as an acute injury.
• Chronic injuries: are caused by overusing the same muscle groups or joints. Poor technique and structural abnormalities can also contribute to the development of chronic injuries.
Some Common sports Injuries:
• Cuts and abrasions – Usually caused by falls. The knees and hands are particularly prone.
• Bruises – a blow can cause small bleeds into the skin.
• Strains: A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Strains can happen suddenly or develop over time.
- Groin strain – symptoms include pain and swelling
- Hamstring strain – symptoms include pain, swelling and bruising.
• Sprain – also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion.
• Fractures – particularly in the lower limbs. The impact of repeated jumping or running on hard surfaces eventually stresses and cracks the bone.
• Concussion – mild reversible brain injury from a blow to the head, which may be associated with loss of consciousness.
Basic Steps to Prevent Injuries:
• Wear appropriate footwear.
• Warm up thoroughly according to your sport.
• Use the appropriate safety equipment, such as mouth guards, helmets and pads.
• Tape or strap vulnerable joints, if required.
• Drink plenty of fluids before, during and after the game.
• Cross-train with other sports to ensure overall fitness and muscle strength.
• Don’t exert yourself beyond your level of fitness.
• Cool down after sport with gentle, sustained stretches.
• Allow adequate recovery time between sessions.
First-Aid Treatment for Injuries:
Treatment for a sports injury will depend on factors such as how severe the injury is and the part of your body affected. A general principle for first-aid is:
• Protect (avoid risk)
• Aid (help)
First aid for sprains, strains and joint injuries
The primary treatment to stop swelling of injured soft tissue is with the RICE method. This includes:
• Protection – Protection means stopping activity immediately and protecting the injured part from additional damage.
• Rest – keep the injured area supported and avoid using for 48-72 hours.
• Ice – apply ice to the injured area for 20 minutes every two hours for the first 48-72 hours.
• Compression – apply a firm elastic bandage over the area, extending above and below the painful site.
• Elevation – raise the injured area above the level of the heart at all times. This allows any fluid that is collecting to drain away.
The RICE method skips Protection, which is also an important step. Hence, some texts advocate PRICE regime for first-aid.
• No Heat – heat will increase bleeding.
• No Alcohol – alcohol increases bleeding and swelling.
• No Running – running or exercise increases blood flow, delaying healing.
• No Massage – massage increases swelling and bleeding, also delaying healing.
First aid for nose-bleeds
• Stop the activity.
• Sit with your head leaning forward.
• Pinch your nostrils together and breathe through your mouth.
• Hold your nose for at least 10 minutes.
• If bleeding continues past 30 minutes, seek medical advice.
First Aid for Athletic Injuries Cuts, Scrapes and Bruises:
Cuts, scrapes and bruises are everyday occurrences in many sports. Most are obviously minor and can be treated with simple first aid. The objectives in treating these minor injuries are to.
• 1. Stop the bleeding
• 2. Clean the wound thoroughly; and
• 3. Protect the wound.
The proper technique to stop bleeding is to apply direct pressure to the wound by firmly holding a clean dressing against it.
Returning After an Injury
Returning to sports too soon can increase your risk of re-injury or developing a chronic problem that will lead to a longer recovery. Waiting too long, however, can lead to unnecessary fitness declines (deconditioning). The best way is getting doctor’s or physiotherapist’s assessment.
SPORTS POLICIES OF INDIA
National Sports Policy, 2001
The National Sports Policy, 1984 was formulated with the objective of raising the standard of Sports in the country. Over the years, the policy fell short of its objectives and a new National Policy on Sports was reformulated in 2001.
This policy has two main objectives viz, promotion of excellence in sports and broad-basing of sports.
Salient features of the National Sports Policy 2001, are as under:
• Broad basing of sports and achievement of excellence;
• Up-gradation and development of infrastructure;
• Support to National Sports Federations and other sports bodies;
• Strengthening of scientific and coaching support to sports;
• Special incentives to promote sports;
• Enhanced participation of women, scheduled tribes and rural youth;
• Involvement of corporate sector in sports promotion; and
• Promote sports mindedness among the public at large.
KHELO INDIA PROGRAMM
Khelo India was introduced by Ministry of Sports and Youth affairs to revive sports culture in India at grass-root level.
• Mainstreaming sport as tool for individual development, community development, economic development and national development.
• Central government initiative for development of sports.
• Khelo India programme has been divided into 12 verticals, namely:
• Play Field Development
• Community Coaching Development
• State Tevel Khelo India Centres
• Annual Sports Competition
• Talent Search and Development
• Utilization and Creation/Upgradation of Sports Infrastructure
• Support to National/Regional/State Sports Academics
• Physical fitness of school children
• Sports for Women
• Promotion of sports amongst people with disabilities
• Sports for Peace and Development
• Promotion of rural and indigenous/ tribal games
• Khelo India is a merger of following schemes:
• Rajiv Gandhi Khel Abhiyan(RGKA)
• Urban Sports Infrastructure Scheme (USIS)
• National Sports Talent Search Scheme (NSTSS)
• Includes 16 disciplines:
• Archery, Athletics, Badminton, Basketball, Boxing, Football, Gymnastics, Plockey, Judo, Kabaddi, Kho-Kho, Shooting, Swimming, Volleyball, Weightlifting, and Wrestling.
• Help scout young talent from schools in various disciplines and groom them as future sports champions.
• High-Powered Committed to identify talented players under it in priority sports disciplines at various levels and each will be provided annual financial assistance of Rs. 5 lakh for 8 years.
• The revamped programme for period 2017-18 to 2019-20 aims to impact entire sports ecosystem, including infrastructure, talent identification, community sports, coaching, competition structure and sports economy.
• The broader scope will allow participants to compete in two categories, (Under 17) and (Under 21). Additionally, It also allows students from colleges and Universities to compete. It will see over 10,000 participants from 29 states and 7 Union Territories.
Khelo India Youth Games
• The first edition of these games under Khelo India Programme was held in New Delhi in February 2018.
• The second edition of Khelo India School Games rechristened as Khelo India Youth Games was held from January 9-20, 2019 at Shree Chatrapati Sports Complex in Pune, Maharashtra.
• The third edition of Khelo India Youth Games was held from 10th January to 22nd January 2020 in Guwahati, Assam.
- Maharashtra topped the medal tally, with Haryana coming in second.
National Sports University
• National University Bill 2018 has been passed by the Parliament, which seeks to establish National Sports University in Manipur.
Issues with development of Sports in India
• India has world’s second-largest population and seventh largest economy, yet, both development and performance of sports (except cricket) in the country is far from expectations. The sports ecosystem in India (including Cricket in some cases) suffers from critical issues. Few of them include:
Governance of Sports in India
• As highlighted in previous topic, almost all sports federation across the country suffers from corruption and unaccountability. Both Supreme Court of India (through Justice Lodha Committee) and Rajasthan High Court (through Justice NK Jain Committee) have intervened in governance of sports to sanitize the sports organisations from disputes, litigations and politics. Both State and Union government have failed to bring out laws and regulations to control this menace.
• Lack of facilities at the grass root level is a major problem. Schools and colleges lack basic infrastructure that can supplement the natural talent in a particular sport and hence in most cases, it gets crushed at the school level itself.
Lack of Sports Culture
• The fundamental problem lies in the absence of a sporting culture in India. Sports in India are considered a secondary and supplementary activity and not a viable career option.
Planning & Policy Lacunae
• For the development of any sector, formulation and execution of an effective policy is a sine qua non. This is true for sports also. While, Sports is a state subject, most of states don’t have a comprehensive sports policy.
• Additionally, the National Sports Policy was also released in 2001 and has not been updated. There is dire need of realigning National and sports policies to move towards a dedicated goal. Additionally, the sports policy needs to be holistic, that envisages Sports as a viable career option, taking care of social security and post-retirement rehabilitation.
INDIAN OLYMPIC ASSOCIATION
• The Indian Olympic Association is the body responsible for selecting athletes to represent India at the Olympic Games, Asian Games and other international athletic meets and for managing the Indian teams at these events.
Indian Olympic Association
• Formed: 1927
• Headquarter: New Delhi
• First President: Sir Dorabji Tata
• Current President: Dr. Narinder Dhruv Batra
• First Secretary General: Dr. A. G. Noehren
• Current Secretary General: Rajeev Mehta
History of Indian Olympic Association
India first participated in the Olympics in 1900 in Paris, represented by Norman Pritchard, an Anglo Indian. Sir Dorabji Tata suggested the need for a Sports body at National level for promoting Olympic Sport in united India. Subsequently, in 1923-24, a provisional All India Olympic Committee was set-up, which organised the All India Olympic Games (that later became the National Games of India) in February 1924.
Eight athletes from these Games were selected to represent India at the 1924 Paris Summer Olympics, accompanied by manager Harry Crowe Buck. Eater, in 1927, the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) was formed, with Sir Dorabji Tata as its founding President and Dr. A.G. Noehren as Secretary.
The Indian Olympic Association is the governing body for the Olympic Movement and the Commonwealth Games in India. It was formed in 1927 and is registered as a Non-Profit Organisation under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. As member of the IOC and OCA, it is the Indian Olympic Association’s primary mission to develop, promote and protect the Olympic Movement in the country.
The members of IOA include:
• National Sports Federations,
• State Olympic Associations,
• IOC Members
• Other select multi-sport organisations.
The Indian Olympic Association is currently governed by a 28-member Executive Council, headed by President, Dr. Narinder Dhruv Batra.
INDIA AT OLYMPICS
• India’s journey at Olympic Games in 1900, with single athlete Norman Pritchard participating and winning two medals- both silver- in athletics.
• Till now, India has won 9 Gold Medals, 7 Silver Medals and 12 Bronze Medals in Olympics with maximum number of gold medals (Eight) coming from Hockey.
Brief History of Olympics
Inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, which led to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896.
Types of Olympics
o Oldest, held first in 1896, Athens.
o Hosted by a different city every four years. But did not take place in 1916 (World War I), 1940 and 1944 (World War II)
o Most recent, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2016).
o USA – hosted maximum number of time – (4) & also won most number of medals, o Forthcoming – 2020: Tokyo; 2024: Paris.
Note: 2020 Tokyo Olympics have been postponed due to Covid-19
o Held first in 1924, Chamonix, France.
o Held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice. But did not take place in 1940 and 1944 (World War II).
o Until 1992 the Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years but with the 1994 Games, the Winter Olympics were held every four years, two years after each Summer Olympics.
o In 1948, Sir Ludwig Guttmann, determined to promote the rehabilitation of soldiers after World War II, organised a multi-sport event between several hospitals to coincide with the 1948 London Olympics.
o For the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome, Guttmann brought 400 athletes to compete in the “Parallel Olympics”, which became known as the first Paralympics. Since then, the Paralympics have been held in every Olympic year.
Youth Olympic Games
o In 2010, the Olympic Games were complemented by the Youth Games, which give athletes between the ages of 14 and 18 the chance to compete.
o The first Summer Youth Games were held in Singapore in 2010, while the inaugural Winter Games were hosted in Innsbruck, Austria, two years later.
India’s Olympic Journey
• 1900 (Paris):
o Norman Pritchard, sole athlete representing India competed in the Men’s 200 meters (Silver Medal) and 200 meters hurdles (Silver Medal).
• 1920 (Antwerp):
o India’s Second appearance at Olympics, o First time, India sent team.
• 1924 (Paris):
o Athletes set to represent India at the Paris 1924 Games were selected from the first ever Indian Olympic Games.
o First time that female athletes were representing India, o Competed in Tennis event for the first time.
• 1928 (Amsterdam):
o India men’s hockey team won gold medal. Captain – Taipal Singh Munda. Dhyan Chand in Team
• 1932 (Los Angeles)
o Hockey – Gold
• 1936 (Berlin)
o Hockey – Gold – Dhyan Chand Captain.
• 1948 (London)
o Hockey – Gold
• 1952 (Helsinki)
o Hockey – Gold
o Freestyle Wrestling – Bronze – Khashaba Jadhav
• 1956 (Melbourne – Stockholm)
o Hockey – Gold
• 1960 (Rome)
o Hockey – Silver
o Milkha Singh – finished 4th with a timing of 45.6, an Indian record that was unbroken till the 1984 Games.
• Tokyo (1964)
o Hockey – Gold
• 1968 (Mexico)
o Hockey – Bronze
• 1972: (Munich)
o Hockey – Bronze
• 1976 (Montreal)
• 1980 (Moscow)
o Hockey – Gold
• 1984 (Los Angeles)
o P. T. Usha lost a bronze by one-hundredth of a second.
• 1988 (Seoul)
o Competed in Archery for the first time.
• 1992 (Barcelona)
• 1996 (Atlanta)
o Leander Paes – India its first medal in Tennis – Bronze
• 2000 (Sydney)
o First medal won by a Woman and a first in Weightlifting – Karnam Malleswari – Bronze
• 2004 (Athens)
o First medal in Shooting – Silver – Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore in the Men’s Double Trap Event.
• 2008 (Beijing)
o Abhinav Bindra – Gold – Shooting – Men’s 10M Air Rifle (India’s first individual Olympic Gold medal)
o Vijender Singh – Bronze – Boxing – Men’s Middleweight
o Sushil Kumar – Bronze – Wrestling – 66 kg
• 2012 (London)
o Vijay Kumar – Silver – Shooting – Men’s Rapid-Fire Pistol, 25M
o Sushil Kumar – Silver – Wrestling – Men’s Air Rifle, 10M
o Saina Nehwal – Bronze – Badminton – Women’s Singles
o Mary Kom – Bronze – Boxing – Women’s Flyweight
o Gagan Narang – Bronze – Shooting – Men’s Air Rifle, 10M
o Yogeshwar Dutt – Bronze – Wrestling – Men’s Lightweight, Freestyle
• 2016 (Rio):
o Pusarla Sindhu – Silver – Badminton – Singles
o Sakshi Malik – Bronze – Wrestling – Women’s Lightweight, Freestyle
• 1964 (Innsburk, Austria)
o India appeared for the first time
o Jeremy Bujakowski – sole athlete – competed in the Men’s Downhill event in Alpine Skiing
• 1968 (Grenoble, France)
• 1988 (Calgary, Canada)
o India competed after a gap of 20 years.
o Shailaja Kumar, the first female athlete representing India at Winter Olympics
• 1992 (Albertville, France) – 1998 (Nagano, Japan) – 2002 (Salt Lake city, USA) – 2006 (Turin, Italy)
• 2010 (Vancouver, Canada) – 2014 (Sochi, Russia) – 2018 (Pyeongchang County, South Korea) – Participated but did not win.