HYDROCARBONS IN RAJASTHAN
• The Rajasthan Basin (Hydrocarbon) is a sedimentary basin located in western Rajasthan with a geographical extent of about 126,000 square kilometres.
• This basin is one of India’s major sources of petroleum and natural gas. As per estimates 480 million tonnes Oil in-place reserves (3.5 Billion Barrels) have been proved in 25 discovered fields of Barmer-Sanchore Basin.
Rajasthan Basin Location:
• Rajasthan Basin forms the eastern flank of Indus geosyncline and comprises the sedimentary tract to the west and northwest of Aravallis upto Indo-Pakistan border. This pericratonic basin also forms a part of the great Thar Desert.
Rajasthan Basin: Sub-Basins:
• Rajasthan Basin has been sub-divided into four potential Petroliferous basins, separated from each other by basement ridges/faults.
• These four Basins are spread over in 14 Districts of Western & Eastern Rajasthan.
• The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural gas has upgraded the first three petroliferous basins into Category- I, i.e. equivalent to the Bombay High, Cambay Basin and Assam, which are potential for hydrocarbons prospects.
• Age of Jaisalmer basin: Mesozoic & Cenozoic
• Districts: Jaisalmer and parts of Jodhpur
• Type of Basin: Pericratonic Basin
• Depressions: The Jaisalmer Basin has been subdivided into 3 depressions:
o Shahgarh Depression
o Kishangarh Shelf
o Miajlar Depression
Barmer– Sanchore Basin
• Age of Barmer-Sanchore Basin: Tertiary
• Districts: Barmer and Part of Jalore.
• Type of Basin: Intracratonic Basins
• Depressions: The Barmer-Sanchore Basin has been subdivided into 2 depressions:
o Barmer Depression in the north and
o Sanchor Depression in the south
• Oil Fields: 38 oil fields discovered in Barmer-Sanchore Basin namely Mangla, Bhagyam, Shakti Ashwariya Guda, Saraswati, Raageshwari, Kaameshwari, Vijaya, Vandana, Bhagyam South-1, NH-2, N-R-4, NE, GS-V-1 & Tukaram.
Bikaner – Nagaur Basin
• Age of Bikaner-Nagaur basin: Paleozoic
• Districts: Bikaner ,Nagaur, Ganganagar/ Hanumangarh and Part of Churu
• Type of Basin: Intracratonic Basins
• The major tectonic element in Bikaner- Nagaur Sub-basin is an almost east-west trending basement ridge, ‘the Bikampur Arch’
• Districts: Kota, Jhalawar, Baran, Bundi and Part of Bhilwara etc.
• Vindhyan basin covers three main regions: Son valley, Bundelkhand and Rajasthan.
Mines & Minerals of Rajasthan
• Rajasthan has deposits of 79 different types of major and minor minerals. Out of these, 57 minerals are being currently mined.
• Rajasthan is leading producer of:
o Rock Phospate
o Red Ochre
o Public Sector Mining in Rajasthan is carried on by RSMML – Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Corporation.
o Engaged in mining & marketing of Industrial Minerals.
• Rajasthan is leading producer of both Cement grade & Steel Grade Limestone production in India
• In Rajasthan Uranium mines have been discovered at:
• Sikar – Rohil, Khandela, Ghateswar
• Kho-Dariba in Alwar
• Ajmer, Dungarpur, Banswara
Lead – Zinc – Silver
• Rajasthan Rank: 1
• Largest Deposit in India: Rampura- Agucha ( Bhilwara district)
• Deposits in Rajasthan:
o Rampura-Agucha (Bhilwara)
o Rajpura-Dariba and Sindesar Khurd (high silver content) (Rajsamand)
o Zawar (Udaipur),
o Sawar and Kayar-Ghugra (Ajmer)
o Basantgarh and Deri (Sirohi)
• Production: Hindustan Zinc Limited (Smelters in Chanderia, Dariba & Debari )
o Lead – Lead-acid batteries, coloring agent in stained glasses, Fishing Sinkers, Roofing
o Lead – In electronics its use as soldering agent Shielding from X-ray in laboratories
o On the basis of excavations at Ganeshwar, located east of Khetri in north Rajasthan, the earliest Indian copper mining is ascribed to Indus valley civilization (3000-1500 BC)
o Copper metallurgy has been mentioned in Arthashastra & Ain-i-Akbari
o Copper Ore: Cuprite, Chalcopyrite
• Second: Rank of Rajasthan in Copper Production in India.
• Most important Copper reserves in India:
o Malanjkhand, Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh (makes MP, 1st in Production)
• Deposits of Copper in Rajasthan:
o Jhunjhunu – Madan Kudan-Kolihan- Banawas-Chandmari-Dholamala, Akwali and Muradpur-Pacheri
o Bhilwara – Devpura-Banera
o Sirohi – Basantgarh
o Alwar – Kho-Dariba
o Udaipur – Anjani, Bedawal, Chari-Manpura
• Production by – Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) under Ministry of mines
• Uses of Copper:
o Ductility, high conductivity of heat and electricity – electrical wires
o Copper + Tin = Bronze (Statute, Indus Valley, Mohen-jo-daro dancing girl)
o Copper + Zinc = Brass (More hard)
o Stainless Steel: Iron + Nickel + Copper + Chromite
o Morel Metal: Copper + Nickel
o Duralumin: Copper + Aluminium
o 3rd most abundant mineral in human body (serves as a cofactor for enzymes, involved in haemoglobin and collagen formation and in incorporating iron into the structure of haemoglobin. It also strengthens blood vessels, bones and nerves. )
• Ore: Wolframite & Scheelite
• One: Rank of Rajasthan in Tungsten Production in India
• Deposits of Tungsten in Rajasthan:
o Degana (Nagaur) – Best quality
o Sirohi – Balda , Uduwaria
o Ajmer- Pali – Alniawas-Sewariya, Pipaliya, Motyia
• Uses of Tungsten:
o Bulb Filament
o High-speed alloy
o Hard-Steel alloys- machine tools, high speed cutting tools, special steel for defense purposes.
• Ore: Pyrolusite
• Karnataka: Largest deposit in India
• Rajasthan very less
• Largest Production: Odisha – Bonai-Keonjhar Belt
• Deposits of Manganese in Rajasthan
• Uses of Manganese:
o Raw material for manufacturing steel alloys
o Manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, and batteries.
- Ore: Found in Dharwad and Cuddapah rock systems of the peninsular India.
• Ore Quality-wise ranking: Haematite> Magnetite >Limonite > Siderite
• Largest Deposit in India: Barabil-Koira Valley in Odisha
• Deposits of Iron-Ore in Rajasthan
o Jaipur – Morija-banol – Neemla-Raisalo
o Bhilwara – Pur banera belt
o Udaipur – Natha ki Pal, Thur Hunder
o Sikar – Dabla
o Dausa – Lalsot
• Deposits in Rajasthan:
• Limestone occurs in almost all the districts of the State, but important deposits are located in:
o Ajmer: Sheopura, Lulwa & Kesarpura
o Bundi: Lakheri and Stur
o Chittaurgarh: Nimbhahera, Parsoli
o Jodhpur: Bilara & Basa
o Nagaur: Mundwa & Gotan
o Pali: Deoli Hulan
o Sirohi:Abu Road
o Jaisalmer: Khuiala and Bandha
o One of the most important industrial mineral
o Required in the manufacture of lime, cement.
o Chemicals – soda-ash, caustic-soda, bleaching powder, calcium carbide
o Fertilizer – Ammonium Nitrate
o As flux in iron and steel, ferro-alloy and other metallurgical industries.
• Deposits in Rajasthan: Banswara – Bhukhia-Jagpura-Delwara belt
• Ore: Beryl (Silicate of Beryllium and Aluminium)
• Rajasthan is the principal producer
• Deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan
o Ajmer: Lohagarh, Gujarwara
o Udaipur: Acheiwas
o Bhilwara: Titoli, Deora Guda
o As moderator in Nuclear Power Reactors.
o Green transparent variety of beryl is emerald which is a precious stone
• Deposits of Bismuth in Rajasthan:
o Narda, Neem-ka-Thana Tehsil, Sikar district
o Medical Preparations
o Radar Equipments
o To make alloys required in production Atomic Bomb
• Deposits in Rajasthan:
o Beawer-Ajmer belt: Dhand
o Bhilwara belt: Bagor-Lesva
o Dungarpur-Banswara belt: Chota-Padri
o Tonk belt: Dholi & Bhojapura
o Kaunthal belt in Udaipur district; chief mines at Bhagwanpura and Ran
o used extensively in electrical and electronic industry due to its excellent dielectric strength and insulating properties
• Rajasthan accounts for about 96% of the country’s total production of asbestos, whereas Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the other producing States contribute the remaining 4%.
• Deposits in Rajasthan: Mainly located in Southern parts of Rajasthan
o Ajmer: Kanwali in Kota Reserve forest area, Arjanpura, Nai-Khurd
o Alwar: palpur, Dhalawar
o Bhilwara: Barana
o Dungarpur: Dewal, Mundwara
o Sirohi: Bori-ki-Bhuj
o Udaipur: Kagdar-ki-Pal,Rakhabdeo,Jogi-ka-Gudha,Antalia,Bhauva
o Pali: Kanotia-Ramgarh
• Rajasthan contributes 50% of share of Production of China Clay in India.
• Deposits in Rajasthan
o Bikaner: Mudh, Chandi, Kotri-Marh-Gura area
o Barmer: Bolia, Gunga
o Nagaur: Khajwana
o Sawai Madhopur: Raesena , Basu
o Sikar: Buchara
o Chittor: Eral & Sawa
o China clay is used in Industries like ceramic, refractory, textile, paper, rubber and pesticides.
• Deposits in Rajasthan
o Ajmer: Kajla Kabra
o Alwar: Jhiri, Dhani & Nizra
o Bhilwara: Kosithan
• Deposits in Rajasthan
o Ajmer: Pink variety from Tatarpur & Khairthal
o Jaipur: Dudwa near Neem-ka-Thana
o Pali: Kalalia, Khinwal
o Sikar: Dudawas and Haridas-ka-Bas
o Chiefly used in the ceramic and glass industries and in insulator making.
• In terms of deposits of Flourite, Rajasthan 2nd and Gujarat 1st
• Deposits in Rajasthan
o Dungarpur: Mando-ki-Pal-Kahila belt
o Jalore: Karara (Karda)
o Jhunjhunu: Chokri Chapoli
o Sikar: Salwarai
o Sirohi: Balda
• Rajasthan: 90% of total production in India
• Deposits of Gypsum in Rajasthan:
o Jaisalmer: Sri Mohan Garrh
o Barmer: Utarlai & Kavas, Chittar-Ka-Par and Thob
o Ganganagar: Siramsar, Mahala, Pallu
o Nagaur: Bhadwasi, Dhakoria, Kharat, Mandava
o Bikaner: Jamsar (largest deposit in State)
• Used in making:
o Portland Cement
o Plaster of Paris
• Deposit in Rajasthan
o Bikaner, Chittaurgarh, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Udaipur
o Directly as paint material or to give colour, body and opacity to paint, cement, linoleum, rubber, glasses, enamels, plastics etc.
• Rock phosphate is popularly known as phosphorite
• Deposits in Rajasthan
o Udaipur: Jhamar Kotra (largest in the country),Maton, Karbaria-ka-Gurha and Dakan Kotra.
o Banswara: Sallopat and Ram-ka-Munna
o Chittorgarh: Jaoda deposit
o Jaisalmer: Birmania, Fatehgarh, Rupsi & Nibh Dungar
o Jaipur: Achrol
o Essential ingredient in the manufacture of superphosphate, a fertilizer
• Rajasthan is the only Wollastonite producing state in India
• Deposits in Rajasthan
o Pali-Sirohi: Khera-Uparla, Belka Pahar near Khila in Sirohi district
o Ajmer: GolaAlipura
o is used in the ceramic, enamel, glass, matches, paints, paper, plastics and plywood industries
o in the preparation of artware, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, insulators
o as an extender of short-fibred asbestos or as a replacement for non-fibrous materials.
TRIBES AND TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT IN RAJASTHAN
Scheduled Area in Rajasthan comprises of eight districts of south eastern part of the State including 5697 villages of the southern part of Rajasthan. Here, areas having tribal population more than 50 percent have been declared as Scheduled Areas by the Government of India through Gazette notification dated 19-05-2018.
Constitutional Provisions for Scheduled Areas
To ensure the protection of aboriginal customs, culture of the tribes and prevent alienation of their lands and natural resources to non-tribals, Article 244 of the Constitution has the provision for declaration of Schedule V & Schedule VI areas.
Schedule V areas can be declared in any state except Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. Consequently, 5th schedule areas have been declared in in 9 states of India namely Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa and Rajasthan.
• Total of 8 districts have either full or partial area declared as part of Schedule V areas.
• Fully Tribal Districts: Banswara, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh.
• Partly Tribal Areas: Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Pali
• As per the Census 2011, total population of scheduled area is 64,63,353 out of which 45,57,917 are members of scheduled tribes population, which is 70.43% of the total population of the Scheduled Area.
• As per Article 342 of Indian Constitution, the President of India notifies scheduled tribes in India.
• The Constitution only states that STs are specified by the President after consultation with the Governor. It does riot define or specify a particular criterion.
• According to the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the criterion includes:
(i) Indication of “primitive” traits
(ii) Distinctive culture
(iii) Geographical isolation
(iv) “Shyness of connect” with the community at large
‘Scheduled tribe’ word has been defined in Article 366 (25) of the Constitution of India as such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be scheduled tribes for the purposes of this constitution.
• ST population is 13.48% (92,38,534) of total population of Rajasthan as per census 2011.
• As per census 2011, highest tribal population is in Udaipur district (15.25 lacs) and least population is in Bikaner district (7,779).
• Rajasthan is at 6th position in terms of population of ST in India after Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand and Gujarat. Rajasthan is at 13th position in terms of ratio of ST population to total population in India.
• Districts in Rajasthan with highest population of STs are Udaipur (15.25 lacs), Banswara, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh and Jaipur respectively.
• Districts in Rajasthan with least population of STs are: Bikaner, Nagaur, Churu, Ganganagar and Hanumangarh respectively.
• Highest ratio (in percentage) of ST population with the population of district is in Banswara (38%), while least ratio is in Nagaur.
• Sex ratio of ST in Rajasthan is 944 (978 in India).
• Population of tribes in Rajasthan is centered around southern part of Rajasthan (around 57%). Banswara, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand districts, Abu-Pindwara region of Sirohi district and southern part of Bhilwara district are included under tribal parts of Rajasthan.
• Meena is the tribe with highest population in Rajasthan. After Meenas, Bheel, Garasiya, Sahariya tribes are placed in terms of population.
• Bheel is the most ancient tribe of Rajasthan.
• Indian Government has declared Sahariya tribe as primitive tribe and included them in ’primitive tribal group’. ’Sahariya’ is the only tribe from Rajasthan to be included in this group.
Tribals of Rajasthan
- Bhil, Bhil Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungari Bhil, Dungari Garasiya, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagaila, Bhilala, Pawara, Vasava, Vasave.
- Damor, Damaria
- Dhanaka, Tadvi, Valvi, Tetariye
- Garasiya (except Rajput Garasiya)
- Kathodi, Katkari, Dhor Kathodi, Dhor Katkari, Son Kathodi, Son Katkari
- Kokna, Kokni, Kookna
- Koli dhor, Tokre Koli, Kolcha, Kolgha
- Nayakada, Nayak, Cholivala Nayake, Kapadia, Mota Nayak, Nana Nayak
- Saharia, Sehariya, Sehriya
Source:-Report of Tribal Department, Rajasthan Government
• ‘Bheel’ word is corrupt form of ‘Dravida’ language’s word ‘Beel’.
• Literal meaning of ‘Beel’ is bow and arrow.
• They rank 2nd with respect to population of tribes after Meena tribe.
• There are 5.98 % Bheel in entire population of Rajasthan.
• Bheel tribe resides in Banswara (Highest), Dungarpur, Udaipur, Pratapgarh, Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Jodhpur and Jhalawar districts in Rajasthan.
• Historian Colonel Todd has called Bheels as ’sons of forest’.
• Bheel people are brave, fearless, adventurous, loyal to their masters and true to their words. It is also assumed that Bheel people never lie after drinking the saffron water offered to Lord Kesariya (Rishabhdev).
• There is unity in Bheel tribe and whenever there is sound of drum and whining they all gather at one place M with their weapons, ’fiere fiere’ is the warcry of Bheels.
• Home of Bheeis is called “Koo”, Colony of Bheels is called ’’falan”. All the huts together are called “Pal”. Head of “Pal” is called ’’Palvi”.
• Village head of Bheels is called ’Tadvi’ while head of village panchayat is called ’’Gameti”. “Death feast’’ given by Bheels is called ’Kayata’
• Penates of Bheels are called “Totems”; however Bheels follow Hindu religion.
• Bheels feel happy after hearing world ”Pada”, while they consider ’’Kandi” (viz. Archer) as abuse. Clan of Bheeis is called ’’Atack”.
• Main meal of Bheels is corn bread and cooked vegetable of onion. They are fond of drinking liquor of Mahua tree and juice of Palm tree.
• Livelihood: Main income source of Bheels is agriculture and forest products.
• Bheels bum forests in hilly regions and cultivate the land, it is called ’Chimata’. When they bum forests in plains, and then cultivate the land, it is called ‘Daziya’.
• Costumes: Bheels are classified into two groups based on their costumes:-
Langotiya Bheel and Potidda Bheel
- Langotiya Bheel males wear loincloth on waist while females wear ’Kachavu’ which is a full skirt upto knee.
- Potidda Bheels wear Dhoti, Bandi or vest and ’falu’.
• Generally Bheel male wear kurta or angrakha with tight dhoti. They tie turban on their head which is called ’Potya’.
• Bheel women wear silver chain around their neck called “Hansali”. They also wear “bor” on their head, ear rings in ears, nose ring, rings in hand, bracelets in in legs and anklets in legs.
• Generally divorce takes place in presence of village head of Bheels which is called “cheda fadna”.
• Bheel worship their ancestors by establishing sculptures of them. They worship dead souls of them which is called “Sira-Chokli“.
• Hathi mana dance : This is performed by Bheel male person by showing stunts by swinging a sword on the occasion of a marriage.
• Beneshwar Fair: It is called ’Kumbh’ of adivasi or tribal people. It is organised at Beneshwar in Dungarpur where Som, Mani and Jakham river meet.
• Ghotiya Amba fair: This is a famous fair of Bheels which is held at Ghotiya Amba in Banswara.
• Gavri dance are also associated with Bheels.
• Meena tribe is around 6.34% of total population of Rajasthan. This tribe is having highest population m Rajasthan among all other tribes.
• This tribe is an ancient tribe of Rajasthan and India Its description is also found in ‘Matasyapuran’
• Saint Magan Sagar has described Meena people descendants of Lord Meen in his book ’Meena Puran’. It is assumed that sign of this tribe is “Meen” (fish).
• Meena tribal people reside mainly in Udaipur, Jaipur, Dausa, Pratapgarh, Sawaimadhopur, Karoli, Alwar, Bundi, Tonk and Dungarpur.
• Highest population of Meena tribe is found in Udaipur (7.18 lacs), Jaipur, Pratapgarh and Dausa
• Literal meaning of Meena is “Meen” (fish).
• Amer was ruled by Meena tribe before Kachwaha dynasty came in. Dulhe Roy Kachwaha defeated Meenas and acquired Amer.
• There are mainly two classes in Meena tribe:
- Jamindar Meena: This class is involved in agriculture and livestock rearing. Their economic condition is better.
- Chowkidar Meena: This class is involved in safeguarding the palaces and treasury of kings and jagirdars. These are called ‘Puranavasi’ and ‘Nayavasi’ respectively.
• Joint families and nuclear families both traditions are prevalent in Meena community. Child marriage is still practised in Meena community m rural areas.
• Husband of sister (brother in law) is respected highly in Meena community.
• Divorce is very easy in this community as husband cuts scarf of wife and gives it in her hand.
• Nata tradition: It prevails in this community. In this tradition a married woman starts to live with other man. Ex-husband is to be compensated by the man with whom married woman is living.
• Compensation amount is called “Jhagra amount”.
• There is tradition of cremating the dead body in Meena community.
• A community feast is organised which is called “Mosar” on the 12th day after death.
• Head of panchayat or head of village is called ’Patel’, in Meena community.
• Totem of Meena community is Bhuj male deity.
• Meena community worship Teen Mata in Rewasa (sikar).
• Main source of income in Meena community is Agriculture. Sharecropping agriculture system is prevalent in this community. Land is divided into three shares:
(i) Small Share (only land is given and 1 /4th part is taken)
(ii) Hadi share(Revenue, irrigation and seed is arranged by land owner and ½ part is taken)
(iii) Hasil Share only land and revenue is given and ¼ part is taken)
• Maize or com, barley, millet, wheat, onion, curd, milk etc. are included in their meal.
Other important facts:
• Meena tribe is divided into 24 khaps, while as per Meena Puran of Saint Magarsagar, there are 5200 khaps of Meena tribe.
• Leela Moriya is a tradition prevalent in Meena tribe which is related to marriage.
• Meena tribe worships “Durga deity” for power.
• Main Pilgrimage ofMeenatribe are: Saint Gautam (Posalisa , Sirohi), Gautameshwar (Pratapgarh), Paplaj Mata, Khurra Mata (Dausa) and Chauth Mata (Sawaimadhopur).
• Meena tribe has progressed much than other tribes in Rajasthan after independence.
• Garasiya is the 3rd largest tribe in Rajasthan in term of population.
• As per census-2011, total population of Garasiya tribe in Rajasthan is 3,14,194 Districts with highest popu¬lation of Garasiya tribe are Sirohi, Udaipur and Pali.
• Garasiya tribe is 4% of total population of all tribes.
• They are found in multiplicity of Abu Road and Pindwara tehsils of Sirohi districi, Bali tehsil of Pali district and Gogunda and Kotda tehsil of Udaipur district. Bhakhar region of Abu Road is the original place of Garasiya tribe.
• Colonel James Todd has considered origin of Garasiya tribe from the word “Gavas” which means “servant”.
• Patriarchal society is prevalent in Garasiya community. Marriage is considered a contract. Its basis is value of bride.
There are three types of marriages in Garasiyas:
(i) Morbandhiya Marriage: It is equivalent to Brahma marriage. Under this Mor or Mod of bride and groom are tied and then both circumambulate around fine in chavri.
(ii) Tanana Marriage: In this type of marriage, a price of marriage is fixed by panch of groom side which is to be paid as gift to them. After this, groom can take the bride home.
(iii) Pahravana Marriage: Bride and groom circumambulate around fire in the absence of Barahmin or Pandit. It is a formality.
• Monuments made after death of a person in Garasiya community are called ’Hure’. Drum is played for informing about death.
• Exchange marriage and widow marriage is prevalent in Garasiya community.
• House of Garasiya community is called ‘gher’. Smallesat unit in a village is called “Faliya”.
• Head of Garasiya community is called “Sahlot”. Warehouse of grain storage is called ’Sohri’.
• Garasiya people consider peacock as their ideal animal and they also conside white animals as sacred.
• “Akshaya Tritiya” is celebrated as new year by Garasiya community.
• Garasiya community is divided into three groups in view of social life:
- Moti Niyat: These are of high class and call themself as “Babor Hiya”
- Nenki Niyat : Theses are of middle class and call themself as “Maderiya”
- Nichli Niyat : There are lower class Garasiyas.
- Bheel Garasiya : If a Garasiya man marries a Bheel women, then their family is called Bheel Garasiya.
- Gameti Garasiya:- If a Bheel man marries a Garasiya women, then their family is called Gameti Garasiya.
• Nakki Lake of Mount Abu is the sacred place of Garasiyas where ashes of their ancestors are immersed.
• Loor, Ghumar, Walar, Koond, Mandal, Gaur, Jwara and Moriya are importance dances of Garasiya community.
• Garasiya community is nature loving.
• Love marriage is prevalent in Garasiya community. Mainly nuclear families are found in Garasiya community.
• Kondhiya or Mak : Death feast in Garasiya community is known by this name.
• Motilal Tejawat united Bheels and Garasiya community with his Eki movement.
• Aana Karna : Window remarriage in this community is called Aana Karna.
• Seva marriage : This marriage is prevalent in Garasiya community in which groom lives at bride’s home .
• Garasiya community is nature loving. Agriculture and livestock rearing is their main profession. They spend their life by cutting trees and selling them.
• Garasiya of Abu Pindwara region sell forest products (fruits, medicines etc.) in nearby markets such as Mount Abu, Abu Road, Sarupganj and Pindwara.
• They worship Lord Shiva, Lord Bhairav and Durga deity. They are also superstitious.
• Their biggest fair is “Fair of common man” which is organised at Siyava (Abu Road) of Sirohi district. Other local fairs and divisional fairs are also organised. Garasiya community considers Nakki Lake (Mount Abu) and Ajari Kund (Sirohi) as sacred. They immerse ashes of their ancestors here.
• Panchayat of Garasiya community is called “Council of elders” , whose head is Pradhan.
Constumes and ornaments:
• Garasiya males wear dhoti, angrakhi, bandi, puthiya (shirt) and jhoolki. They specially prefer embroidery on their clothes.
• They also wear Hansli on neck, bracelets on their hand, ear rings, Loong, Jhela, Tanga etc. ornaments.
• Garasiya women wear glass inlaid skirts, Jhoolki, Kurti and Kanchli. They also wear dome in ears, Latkan or pendent, Masiya, Hansali in neck, Borli, Bor on head, jhela(nosering), and bracelets in legs.
• Origin of Sahariya world is considered to be from Persian word ‘Sahar’ which means people residing in forests.
• Around 97% of total Sahariya population in Rajasthan resides in Shahbad and Kishanganj tehsil of Baran. A small population of Sahariya lives in Kota and Jhalawar also.
• As per census 2011 total population of Sahariya community is 1.11 lacs.
• Indian Government has included this tribe in “Primitive Tribal Group” as this is the most backward tribe.
• Generally houses of Sahariya tribe are made up of earth, stone, bamboo wood and grass, these houses are called “Tapri”.
• Sahariyas who reside in deep forests construct their homes by raising a platform or scaffolding on a tree which is called ‘Gopana’, ‘Koraa’ or Topa.
• Township of Sahariya people is called ’Saharana’ and their village is called ’Sahrol’
• Panchayat is a very important institution of Sahariya community which has three Ievels – Panchtai, Ekdasiya and Chaurasia. Head of Sahariya tribe is called ’Kotval’.
• Generally Sahariya tribe people do not indulge in crime and are satisfied persons. They never beg also.
• Dowry system is not prevalent in Sahariya community.
• Nata tradition is prevalent in this community but compensation amount is to be given to ex-husband by new husband.
• Widow marriage is also practised in this community.
• Sahariya women are fond of making tattoos on their body while tattoo making in Sahariya men is prohibited.
• Lord Tejaji is favourite folk deity of Sahariyas. Lord Tejaji’s than (Devara) is outside the township of Sahariya community.
• Kodiya Devi is the family goddess of Sahariya community.
• Fair of Kapildhara is the Kumbh of Sahariya community. This flair is organised at Sitabari near Kelwara in Baran on Karthik Pumima.
• This community consides Valmiki as their first spiritual teacher’ or ’adiguru’.
• Valmiki temple and Valmiki hermitage is considered biggest as the pilgrimage by Sahariya community.
• Main source of their income is agriculture, daily wages work, collecting wood and other products from forests.
• Costumes : Sahariya man wear a special type of angrakhi which is called ’Salooka’ . They also wear tight dhoti upto knees which is called ’Pancha’.
• Khapta is worn by them on their head.
• Sahariya woman wear a special type of costume ‘Reja’.
Other important facts:
• Dhori tradition: Ashes of the deceased are laid on courtyard at night and it is covered. This is done at the 3rd day after death. It is assumed that footprints formed in ashes are the footprints of the body in which deceased will take rebirth.
• Man and woman do not dance together in Sahariya community.
• Polygamy is practised in Sahariya community,
• This tribe is originally from Maharashtra. Around 52% of the total population of Kathodi tribe resides in Kotra, Jhadol and Sarada Panchayat blocks of Udaipur.
• Remaining population resides in Dungarpur, Baran and Jhalawar.
• As per census 2011 their population is 4,833 in Rajasthan.
• This tribe is expert in making Kattha (acacia catechu) and cutting bamboo tree. This tribe was brought from Maharashtra to Udaipur by a Bohra contractor of Udaipur. They are called Kathodi because of making acacia catechu. .
• This profession continued for 50 years after coming from Maharashtra but presently due to environmental pollution, state government has prohibited it. Now Kathodi tribe has shifted to selling of forest produce for their livelihood.
• Kathodi tribe people wear very less clothes. Man only put on loin cloth and woman cover their body with fadka saree (saree in Marathi style).
• Liquor is their favourite drink. They make liquor of Mahua tree and drink it. Women also prefer to drink in this community.
• There is a tradition of burying the dead body and it is mourned for 12 days.
• Their huts are called ‘Kholra’ which is made of grass, leaves and bamboos.
• Their families are self centered. A person seperates from his family after his marriage.
• Head of family of Kathodi tribe is called ‘Nayak’.
Folk dances of Kathodi tribe :
i) Mavaliya dance: It is a pure male dance which is performed for nine days at the time of Navratra. Around 10 to 12 men dance in circle at the rhythm of dholak, tapara and bansali. They also sing songs of deities.
ii) Holi dance (Gair dance): It is a female dance which is performed at the occasion of Holi. Under this dance women dance together by holding each other’s hand and they form a pyramid while dancing. Along with women, men play dholak, payri, ghoriya and bansali.
Folk musical instruments of Kathodi tribe
Kathodi tribe prefer to reside between forests and nature. They themself manfacture folk musical instruments by natural products, which are as given below:
1. Tarapi: This musical instrument is equivalent to the famous folk musical instrument ‘tarapa’ of Maharashtra. A hole is drilled at one side of bottle gourd and pulp is extracted from inside. It is dried after this and then a bamboo is taken and one end of bamboo is inserted into bottle gourd end one end is inserted into horn of buffalo. It is played after this.
2. Tapra : It is a two feet long musical instrument made of bamboo. One end of bamboo is cut into triangular shape and other end of bamboo is made similar to stick of broom.
3. Pavri: It is 3 and half feet long musical instrument made of bamboo. There are sixteen holes in it and it is played during Mavaliya dance or at the time of death.
4. Dhoriya (Khokhra): It is a musical instrument made out of bamboo.
• Around 98% of total Damor population resides mainly in Dungarpur, Banswara and Udaipur districts.
• Around 61.61% of Damor tribe population is in Dungarpur, Banswara and Udaipur. Highest population of Damor tribe lives in Seemalvada panchayat of Dungarpur, that is why this region is called “Damariya region”.
• Damors prefer to live in nuclear families. After birth of son in family, separate house is arranged for him.
• Head of panchayat of Damors is called ’Mukhi’
• Smallest unit of a village is called ‘falan’.
• The basis of marriage in Damor tribe is price of bride which is to be paid by side of the groom for marriage. After payment of price of bride, men can marry multiple girls.
• Men of Damor tribe are also fond of putting on ornaments.
• Important fairs of Damor tribe are ‘Fair of Chela Vavji’ (Panchmahal, Gujrat) and ‘Fair of Rewadi of Gyaras‘ (Dungarpur city).
• Agriculture is the main profession of this tribe. The tribe has never been dependent on forests.
• They are also engaged in livestock rearing. They worship animals on the occasion of Diwali.
• ‘Kanjar’ and ‘Sansi’ castes have a special cultural importance in Rajasthan. It is to be taken into account here that these two are included in scheduled castes (S.C.) and not ST.
• This cast is infamous for crimes and they mainly reside in Kota, Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar, Bhilwara, Alwar and Ajmer.
• ‘Kanjar’ world is the corrupt form of Sanskrit language word ’Kananchar’ meaning ’a person who dwells in the forest’.
• Kanjars are of normal physique. Women of this caste are very pretty and dexterous in singing and dancing but they are unhygienic.
• Caste unity exists between them which is an important social feature.
• Head of Kanjar caste is called ’Patel’.
• After drinking ’bowl of King Hakam’ anything said by a person of Kanjar caste is true.
• There is a tradition of pouring liquor drops into the mouth of the person who is dying. Dead body is buried in this community.
• This caste is non-vegetarian and they are also fond of drinking liquor. They prefer meat of ’peacock’ but as peacock is declared as national bird, this tendency to eat peacock meat is reduced.
• These people worship god before doing any work and it is called as ’’Patti Mangana”.
• Their family deity is Joganiya Mata.
• Their folk musical instruments are ‘dholak’ and cymbals.
• ‘Chakri’ dance is famous of this caste.
• Sansi caste has its origin from “Sansmal”, Sansmal was a person.
• Two sub-caste of sansi are – Bija and Mala.
• This caste mainly resides in ’Bharatpur and Ajmer districts.
• This community lives nomadic life. Their other source of income is making and selling of handicrafts.
• Engagement ceremony is completed by exchanging coconut shell. Widow marriage is not prevalent into this society.
• Sansi people are fond of meat and liquor. They eat meat of fox.
• Tradition of Kookri – This is a tradition of Sansi caste, under which after marriage, purity of character is tested of a woman.
• Sansi caste considers “Bhakhar Bavji” as their guardian.
Important facts and traditions of tribal people:
Important traditions of Tribes
• Motana : When there is death of tribesman in suspicious circumstances or by accident, then a fixed price is recovered from the accused. This fixed price is called “Motana” which is decided by Panch of Panchayat. Dead body is removed from the place of occurrence only after payment of “Motana”.
• Natara tradition: It is an agreement which is done by a married or widow woman for living with another man.
• Dapa tradition : Price of bride given to father of bride from groom’s side.
• Cheda fedna or a divorce: It is a process in Bhil or Meena community, in which wife is abandoned and husband cuts a part of saree and gives it to wife. This process is called Cheda fadna.
• Jhagra Rashi : This is the compensation amount which is to be given by new husband to ex-husband of a married woman.
• Wear/vaar: This is a system prevalent in tribal society in which tribal community gather at one place at the time of threat / adversity / danger and help each other.
• Bharandi: Picture of folk deity of Bheel tribe is painted on the wall as a folk painting. Folk deity of Bheel tribe is “Bharandi”. This painting is called “Bheet Bharandi”,
• Halma : It is also called Heeda or Handa. It is a tradition prevalent in tribal communities, in which they help each other by collective co-operation and complete the work.
• Hamelo : It is an entertaining fair organised by Manikya Lai Verma tribal research and training institute, Udaipur. In this fair, capacities of tribal people are enhanced and they are connected to mainstream of the society. It is organised for protecting folk culture of tribes.
• Lokai : Feast organised at the time of death in tribal community is called lokai, which is also called ‘kandiya’.
Institutions involved in tribal development in Rajasthan
Rajasthan Tribal Area Development Co-Operative Federation (Rajas Federation)
Establishment -27th March, 1976
- To provide daily consumption products at reasonable price.
- To arrange a system so that reasonable price is given to tribal people for agriculture products and forest products.
Rajasthan Scheduled Castes And Scheduled Tribes Finance And Development Corporation Limited:
Establishment – 28th February, 1981
- To implement various schemes for economic development of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
- To make target group of SC and ST self reliant by providing them with economic resources.
Manikya Lai Verma Tribal Research and Training institute Udaipur:
Estblishment – 2nd January, 1964
- Overall development of tribal people, by research, training and consultation services in the field of tribal development
Rajasthan Vanvasi Kalvan Parishad
- Spreading awareness among tribal people about developmental program.es and helping them in every possible way.
A special campaign was launched by this institute name “Vanvasi ko gale lagao“
Scheduled Tribe Advisory council (Anusuchit Janjanti Paramarshdatri Parishad)
Establishment – 27th August 2010
- To review the schemes implemented for scheduled tribes by tribal development department and to advice for new schemes for development and welfare of tribes.
Various schemes for development of tribal area:
(i) Tribal development programme:
• It was started in India in the year 1973-1974, while it started in Rajasthan in the year 1975-76.
• It is also called tribal area development programme (TOP).
TSP (tribal sub plan area):
• Area where, there is ST population is more than 50% in Panchayat Samiti or block.
• Region: It is being run in 23 panchayat blocks of 5 districts, namly Sirohi, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh, Dungarpur and Banswara are completely covered.
• It is 100% funded by central government.
• Objective: Overall development
Basic infrastructure facilities:
- Road (rural)
- Electricity (rural)
- Drinking water (rural)
- Micro irrigation
- Medical Facilites
- Operation of Co-operation activities
Permanent assets are to be created by development of basic infrastructure facilities and social facilities so that social and economic position of tribal can be improved.
Monitoring: Monitored by tribal region development department, Headquarter – Udaipur
(Ii) Sahariya Development Programme:
• It was launched in the year 1977-78 in Rajasthan.
• Region: It runs in Shahbad and Kishanganj Panchayat blocks of Baran district.
• It is 100% funded by central government.
(iii) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA):
• It was launched in the year 1978-79.
• Scheduled area: This area is same as covered in tribal area development programme. It is called tribal area development approach (TADA).
• This programme has been launched in 44 MADA small divisions in 18 districts. 3586 villages are included in it. As per census 2011, total population of this area is 32.95 lacs, out of which tribal population is 18.30 lacs which is 55.55% of total population of this area.
• This area has been selected besides scheduled area for benefitting tribal area.
• District has been considered as a unit in it.
• Conditions for being a MADA small division are as below:
• Total population of MADA small division should be more than 10,000.
• Tribal population residing in it should be more than 50% of total population.
• Villages should be connected with each other. Villages situated at borders should have ST, population more than 50%.
MADA cluster programme area:
Conditions for an area to be MADA cluster are as given below:
- Total population of cluster should be 5000 or more.
- Tribal population should be more than 50% of total population.
• Development programmes are being implemented in this area through MADA clusters. 11 clusters are approved in 8 districts of state. 159 villages are included under it.
• As per census 2011, population of MADA cluster area is 1.21 lacs, out of which .67 lacs is tribal population which is 55.84% of total population of cluster.
Bhikhri Janjati Vikas Karyakaram
• This is 100 % funded by state government.
• Villages of 31 districts which are not covered under scheduled area (TADA), MADA small division, MADA clusters and Sahariya development programme are included under this.
Sahariya – Kathodi Vishesh Sahayata Kshetra
• This programme started in the year 2004-05.
• Region covered 23 panchayat blocks of five districts + 2 panchayat block of Sahariya region are covered under this.
• 25 kg/family / month / (free) is given to the families of Sahariya-Kathodi.
• This programme has now been merged in Mukhyamantri Food Security Scheme on 15th June, 2010, which started from Tonk.
Latest information and important facts about tribes in Rajasthan:
Tribal Area Development Department, Rajasthan Government
• The executive power of state area extended under schedule five of Indian constitution for administration and control of scheduled tribes and scheduled areas. Tribal area development department was formed in 1975 in Rajasthan for holistic development of tribal community based on the powers given to state by the constitution.
• As per Part- C of Fifth Schedule of Indian constitution, scheduled area is that area, which is notified as scheduled area by Indian President. areas of To state has been declared as scheduled area.
• Detailed list of Scheduled tribes as per Rajasthan Scheduled caste and Scheduled Tribe (Amendment) Act 1976.