Geography of Raj – II

Delhi Law Academy

Forests of Rajasthan

•            The forests of Rajasthan cover approximately an area of 32,737 sq km which is 9.57% of the total geographical area of the state. The state has teak forests, which is northern most limit of teak zone in India.

•            Apart from meeting the fuel-wood and fodder demand, forest resources of Rajasthan contribute Rs.7160 million to the state domestic product (SDP).

•            The forests of Rajasthan are spread unequally in Northern, Southern, Eastern and South Eastern parts, and the western region of Rajasthan is devoid of any forest cover. Most of the forests are in hilly regions of Udaipur, Rajasamand, Kota, Baran Sawai Madhopur, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Bundi, Alwar, Jhalawar and Banswara districts.

•            However, the extent of Natural Forests in Rajasthan is not only one of the lowest in the country but also in terms of productivity of forest, it is the lowest.

•            On the contrary, Rajasthan has the largest chunk of wasteland, about 20% of the total wastelands of the country.

Administrative Classification

•            As per Forest Survey of India, State of Forest report 2019, (ISFR 2019 ) Rajasthan has recorded forest area of about 32,737 square kms.

•            This forest area forms 9.57% of state’s geographical area and about 4.28% of India’s forest area.

On Basis of Legal Status:

On the basis of Legal status, the Government has classified this forest area into three types:

•            Reserved Forests – 12,475 Sq. Kms

•            Protected Forests – 18,217 Sq. Kms

•            Unclassified Forests – 2,045 Sq. Kms

Reserved Forest:

•            These forests are under the direct supervision of the government.

•            No public entry is allowed for collection of timber or grazing of cattle.

•            Rajasthan has 12,475 sq kms or 38% of forest as Reserved Forest.

Protected Forest:

•            These forests are looked after by the government, but the local people are allowed to collect fuel-wood/timber and graze their cattle without causing serious damage to the forests.

•            Rajasthan has 18,217 sq kms or 55% of forest area under Protected Forests.

Unclassified Forest:

•            The unclassified forests are those in which there is no restriction on the cutting of trees and grazing of cattle.

•            Rajasthan has 2045 sq kms or 7% of area has Unclassified forests.

Classification  based  on Canopy Density

The Forest Survey of India (FSI), brings out bi-annual state of forests report.

The ISFR 2019 Rajasthan report, the FSI classifies forest as:

•            Very Dense Forests (VDF) – 0.02%

•            Moderately Dense Forests (MDF) – 1.27%

•            Open Forests (OF) – 3.57%

•            Scrubs – 1.39%

•            Non-Forest Area- 93.75%

Very Dense Forests (VDF):

•            The Lands with forest cover having a canopy density of 70% and more are called Very Dense Forests (VDF).

•            In Rajasthan, there are only 77.81 Sq kms of very dense forests.

•            Percentage VDF: 0.02% of Geographical Area.

Moderately Dense Forests (MDF):

•            The Land with forest cover having a canopy density of 40-70% is called the Moderately Dense Forest (MDF).

•            In Rajasthan, there are only 4341.90 Sq kms of moderately dense forests.

  • Percentage MDF: 1.27% of Geographical Area.

Open Forests (OF):

•            The Lands with forest cover having canopy density of 10-40% are called Open Forests.

•            In Rajasthan, there are only 12,209.80 Sq kms of open forests.

•            3.57% of Geographical Area.


•            The degraded forest lands which have a Canopy density of less than 10% are called Scrubs.

•            In Rajasthan, there are about 4760.04 Sq kms of scrubs.

•            Percentage Scrubs: 1.39% of Geographical Area.

Non-Forest Area:

•            Rest of the area, included all other lands except forest area.

•            Percentage of Non-Forest area : 93.75%

Important Terms:

•            Forest Cover:

All lands which are more than 1 hectare in area and with a Canopy density of more than 10% irrespective of the ownership and legal status is called Forest Cover.

•            Recorded Forest Area:

The area recorded as “forests” in the Government records is called Forest Area or Recorded Forest Area.

•            Canopy and Canopy Density:

The cover of branches and Foliage formed by the crown of trees is called canopy. The percentage area of land covered by the canopy of trees is called canopy density.

District-wise Forest Cover of Rajasthan

Top 5 Districts with Forest Cover:

1. Udaipur (Most)

2. Alwar

3. Pratapgarh

4. Baran

5. Chittaurgarh

Last 5 Districts with Forest Cover:

• 33rd – Churu (Least)

• 32nd – Hanumangarh

• 31st – Jodhpur

• 30th – Dausa

• 29th – Nagaur

* Based on ISFR – 2019: Rajasthan released in December 2019

Types of Forests

The forests of Rajasthan can be divided into below broad forest types.

•            Tropical Thorn Forests,

•            Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests,

•            Bamboo-Forests

•            Central India Sub-tropical hill forests.

•            Mixed Miscellaneous Forests

Tropical Thorn Forests of Rajasthan

•            Tropical thorn forests are found in arid and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan, namely Jodhpur, Pali, Jalore, Barmer, Nagaur, Churu, Bikaner etc.

•            These extend from western Indo -Park border and gradually merge with the dry deciduous mixed forests of the Aravalli hills and the south-eastern plateau.

•            The main species found in this kind of forests are Acacia nilotica , Acacia leucophloea, Prosopis cineraria, Capparis aphylla, Zizyphus spp., Flacourtia spp. etc.

Tropical Dry Deciduous (Dhol) Forests

•            These forests are mostly found in small patches in few parts of the state. the northern and eastern slopes of aravalli ranges, mostly in Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur districts, are covered with this type of forests.

•            Sporadic growth of certain species of dry deciduous forests is found along the dry river beds of Jalore, Nagaur, Ganaganagar and Bikaner, districts.

• The main species found in this kind of forests are Babul

Bamboo Forests

•            Bamboo covers about 2.5% of the area occurring mostly in Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Kota & Abu hills.

Central Indian Sub – tropical Hill Forests

•            These forests which are most abundant in central India, as in Madhya Pradesh, parts of Gujarat and Maharashtra, are found in Sirohi district of Rajasthan also, mostly on the hills girding Mt. Abu.

•            These forests have semi-evergreen and some evergreen species of trees.

•            The vegetation of Mt. Abu consists of many plants which are similar to the sub – tropical region of Himalayas. Around Mt. Abu, they are well represented between 700 to 800 m altitudes.

Mixed Miscellaneous Forests

•            These forests are mostly found in south-eastern and eastern part of Rajasthan including Chittorgarh, Kota, Udaipur, Sirohi, Banswara, Dungarpur, Baran and Jhalawar distrists.

•            Average rainfall in these forest is more than 60 cm and cover approximately 20% of the forest cover.

•            These Forests mainly have Anogeissus pendula, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia tomentosa, Terminalia arjuna , Terminalia chebula, Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia paniculata etc. and its associates.

State Forest Policy 2010

•            In February 2010, the State Government notified The Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 mainly with the objectives of protecting, conserving and developing natural forest. While committing to achieve the

•            National Policy mandate of 33% forest cover, the state policy envisages a realistic target of 20% forest cover. However, the grassland ecosystem of desert plains besides orans and gauchars together with the tree cover of agro ecosystem can make it closer to the national goal.

•            The 5% geographical area of existing forests of the state is required to be set apart for conservation of biodiversity including wildlife resources in the state as per this policy.


The basic objectives of state forest policy of Rajasthan are as follows:

•            Protecting, conserving and developing natural forest in Rajasthan with active participation of local community.

•            Increasing the productivity of forests through appropriate management interventions and use of modern technology to meet the needs of present as well as future generations.

•            Combating desertification and preventing all kinds of land degradation.

•            Conservating floral and natural diversity and gene pool reserve through a network of protected areas.

•            Empowering the village communities for sustainable management of forest under join forest management system.

•            The principal aim of forest policy is environmental stability and ecological security through increasing vegetate cover, which will lead to reduction in stratospheric temperature, is likely to increase the possibility of rains.

Principles of Forest Management

The objectives of state forest policy will be achieved by adoption following broad principles:

•            Protecting existing forests

•            Participation of local communities in forest management.

•            Following people centric approach for declaration of wildlife protected areas.

•            Drought proofing through afforestation & Pasture development.

•            State forest department is custodian of forest resources that belong to people but at the same time has obligation to protect ecosystem.

•            Co-ordination with different government departments and institutions.

•            Transparent, responsive and accountable forest administration.

Sacred Groves in Rajasthan

It is estimated that about 25,000 sacred groves or ‘orans’ and other sanctified ecosystems, varying in size between 0.1 ha. to 5000 ha., are in existence in Rajasthan.

Of these, nearly 5,370 sq. kilometers are orans lying in the Thar Desert.

Some big orans are Bhadriyaji in Jaisalmer district that covers about 15,000 hectares and Kundla’s Oran in Barmer district that covers about 7,500 hectares.

Sacred groves are known under various names in Rajasthan as:

• Banis of Mewar

• Kenkris of Ajmer

• Orans of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner

• Shamlat Dehs and Devbanis of Alwar

• Baag in south-eastern Rajasthan regions

Sacred groves or Orans provide shade, fuel wood, fodder and even food and livelihood for humans and animals. Local communities control them in a complex management system and they have played an important role in the ecology, politics and history of Rajasthan.

The Orans of the Bishnois in Jodhpur are famous for the protection accorded to the Blackbuck and the Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) tree, which are sacred to the Bishnois.

Delineation of an Oran is conducted during a ceremony called Doodh Jal or Kesar Chaanta, when boundaries of the sacred grove is marked by pouring Ganga water or saffron milk around a specific area within the forest, which is thereafter declared as an Oran or Dev Bani (God’s forest).

560 sacred groves have been documented in the state.

Garva ji, Bharthariji, Naraini Mata, Peerbaba, Hanumanji and Naharsakti Mata are the deities to whom these groves are dedicated.

Types of Sacred Groves in Rajasthan

Deep N. Pandey and his team in their paper “Sacred Forestry: The Case of Rajasthan, India”, have classified the sacred areas into:

•            Sacred groves

•            Sacred corridors

o            Locally protected riverbanks by villagers in the name of Lord Shiva

•            Temple forests

o            Temple forests are managed and maintained to serve the temple. This may include economic, ecological, social and religious functions.

•            Sacred gardens

o            Baugs or garden planted near settlements for fruit, fodder, fuelwood, medicine, NTFPs and shade.

  •  Inhabited groves

Sacred groves in Aravallis and Vindhyas were classified into three major groups.

o            In the first group they classified groves located near the village and close to a water source. Such groves are also at the top of small hillocks in Aravallis, where people worship Bheruji, Bawsi and Mataji.

o            Khanpa Bheruji, Kukawas Bheruji, Badi Roopan Mata etc. are the example of such sites in Udaipur. In the Vindhyan tract of Kota Bundi, Baran and Jhalawar such groves abound.

o            The second group of groves is dedicated to Lord Mahadeo. Vegetation of the entire watershed is often protected as groves. Sometimes part of the vegetation in a watershed is protected.

o            Large trees and a water source are the main characteristics of these groves. Water sources developed as open and step wells (Bawdi) may be seen at Ubeshwarji, Kamalnath, Gautmeshwasji,Taneshwarji and Jhameshwarji. Sometimes both groups can also be found in the same village.

o            The third type may be as a single tree. In Kotra forest range several large trees of Ficus benghalensis are seen. Because of development of aerial and prop roots these trees look like a grove.

o            The tradition of protecting Peepal, Gular and Bargad trees is not only found in Rajasthan but also in other states of India. The tradition is also reported from other Asian and African countries.

Protection of Sacred grooves:

In 1730, King of Jodhpur ordered his soldiers to cut the Khejri tree in village Khejadli in 1730. The villagers from the Bishnoi community, led by Amrita Devi, protested the move. Amrita Devi embraced a tree, followed by her three daughters. In all, 363 people were martyred in order to save these trees.

Gujjar community of Rajasthan use to plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) and worship it as Neem-god. A Gujjar settlement normally starts near a water source or along a stream or river. Initially few houses are constructed and neem saplings procured from varying sources are planted in the enclosure around the hut, and worshiped it as the abode of God Deonarayan.


•            The Rajasthan Basin (Hydrocarbon) is a sedimentary basin located in western Rajasthan with a geographical extent of about 126,000 square kilometres.

•            This basin is one of India’s major sources of petroleum and natural gas. As per estimates 480 million tonnes Oil in-place reserves (3.5 Billion Barrels) have been proved in 25 discovered fields of Barmer-Sanchore Basin.

Rajasthan Basin Location:

•            Rajasthan Basin forms the eastern flank of Indus geosyncline and comprises the sedimentary tract to the west and northwest of Aravallis upto Indo-Pakistan border. This pericratonic basin also forms a part of the great Thar Desert.

Rajasthan Basin: Sub-Basins:

•            Rajasthan Basin has been sub-divided into four potential Petroliferous basins, separated from each other by basement ridges/faults.

•            These four Basins are spread over in 14 Districts of Western & Eastern Rajasthan.

•            The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural gas has upgraded the first three petroliferous basins into Category- I, i.e. equivalent to the Bombay High, Cambay Basin and Assam, which are potential for hydrocarbons prospects.

Jaisalmer Basin

•            Age of Jaisalmer basin: Mesozoic & Cenozoic

•            Districts: Jaisalmer and parts of Jodhpur

•            Type of Basin: Pericratonic Basin

•            Depressions: The Jaisalmer Basin has been subdivided into 3 depressions:

o            Shahgarh Depression

o            Kishangarh Shelf

o            Miajlar Depression

Barmer– Sanchore Basin

•            Age of Barmer-Sanchore Basin: Tertiary

•            Districts: Barmer and Part of Jalore.

•            Type of Basin: Intracratonic Basins

•            Depressions: The Barmer-Sanchore Basin has been subdivided into 2 depressions:

o            Barmer Depression in the north and

o            Sanchor Depression in the south

•            Oil Fields: 38 oil fields discovered in Barmer-Sanchore Basin namely Mangla, Bhagyam, Shakti Ashwariya Guda, Saraswati, Raageshwari, Kaameshwari, Vijaya, Vandana,  Bhagyam South-1, NH-2, N-R-4, NE, GS-V-1 & Tukaram.

Bikaner – Nagaur Basin

•            Age of Bikaner-Nagaur basin: Paleozoic

•            Districts: Bikaner ,Nagaur, Ganganagar/ Hanumangarh and Part of Churu

•            Type of Basin: Intracratonic Basins

•            The major tectonic element in Bikaner- Nagaur Sub-basin is an almost east-west trending basement ridge, ‘the Bikampur Arch’

Vindhyan Basin

•            Districts: Kota, Jhalawar, Baran, Bundi and Part of Bhilwara etc.

•            Vindhyan basin covers three main regions: Son valley, Bundelkhand and Rajasthan.

Mines & Minerals of Rajasthan

•            Rajasthan has deposits of 79 different types of major and minor minerals. Out of these, 57 minerals are being currently mined.

•            Rajasthan is leading producer of:

o            Zinc

o            Feldspar

o            Wollastonite

o            Silver

o            Rock Phospate

o            Gypsum

o            Red Ochre

•            RSMML:

o            Public Sector Mining in Rajasthan is carried on by RSMML – Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Corporation.

o            Engaged in mining & marketing of Industrial Minerals.

•            Rajasthan is leading producer of both Cement grade & Steel Grade Limestone production in India


•            In Rajasthan Uranium mines have been discovered at:

• Sikar – Rohil, Khandela, Ghateswar

• Kho-Dariba in Alwar

• Ajmer, Dungarpur, Banswara

Lead – Zinc – Silver

•            Rajasthan Rank: 1

•            Largest Deposit in India: Rampura- Agucha ( Bhilwara district)

•            Deposits in Rajasthan:

o Rampura-Agucha (Bhilwara)

o Rajpura-Dariba and Sindesar Khurd (high silver content) (Rajsamand)

o Zawar (Udaipur),

o Sawar and Kayar-Ghugra (Ajmer)

o Basantgarh and Deri (Sirohi)

•            Production: Hindustan Zinc Limited (Smelters in Chanderia, Dariba & Debari )

•            Uses:

o Lead – Lead-acid batteries, coloring agent in stained glasses, Fishing Sinkers, Roofing

o Lead – In electronics its use as soldering agent Shielding from X-ray in laboratories


•            History:

o On the basis of excavations at Ganeshwar, located east of Khetri in north Rajasthan, the earliest Indian copper mining  is ascribed to Indus valley civilization (3000-1500 BC)

o Copper metallurgy has been mentioned in Arthashastra & Ain-i-Akbari

o Copper Ore: Cuprite, Chalcopyrite

•            Second: Rank of Rajasthan in Copper Production in India.

•            Most important Copper reserves in India:

o Malanjkhand, Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh (makes MP, 1st in Production)

•            Deposits of Copper in Rajasthan:

o Jhunjhunu – Madan Kudan-Kolihan- Banawas-Chandmari-Dholamala, Akwali and Muradpur-Pacheri

o Bhilwara – Devpura-Banera

o Sirohi – Basantgarh

o Alwar – Kho-Dariba

o Udaipur – Anjani, Bedawal, Chari-Manpura

•            Production by – Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) under Ministry of mines

•            Uses of Copper:

o Ductility, high conductivity of heat and electricity – electrical wires

o Copper + Tin = Bronze (Statute, Indus Valley, Mohen-jo-daro dancing girl)

o Copper + Zinc = Brass (More hard)

o Stainless Steel: Iron + Nickel + Copper + Chromite

o Morel Metal: Copper + Nickel

o Duralumin: Copper + Aluminium

o 3rd most abundant mineral in human body (serves as a cofactor for enzymes, involved in haemoglobin and collagen formation and in incorporating iron into the structure of haemoglobin. It also strengthens blood vessels, bones and nerves. )


•            Ore: Wolframite & Scheelite

•            One: Rank of Rajasthan in Tungsten Production in India

•            Deposits of Tungsten in Rajasthan:

o Degana (Nagaur) – Best quality

o Sirohi – Balda , Uduwaria

o Ajmer- Pali – Alniawas-Sewariya, Pipaliya, Motyia

•            Uses of Tungsten:

o Bulb Filament

o High-speed alloy

o Hard-Steel alloys- machine tools, high speed cutting tools, special steel for defense purposes.


•            Ore: Pyrolusite

•            Karnataka: Largest deposit in India

•            Rajasthan very less

•            Largest Production: Odisha – Bonai-Keonjhar Belt

•            Deposits of Manganese in Rajasthan

o            Banswara

•            Uses of Manganese:

o Raw material for manufacturing steel alloys

o Manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, and batteries.


  •  Ore: Found in Dharwad and Cuddapah rock systems of the peninsular India.

•            Ore Quality-wise ranking: Haematite> Magnetite >Limonite > Siderite

•            Largest Deposit in India: Barabil-Koira Valley in Odisha

•            Deposits of Iron-Ore in Rajasthan

o Jaipur – Morija-banol – Neemla-Raisalo

o Bhilwara – Pur banera belt

o Udaipur – Natha ki Pal, Thur Hunder

o Sikar – Dabla

o Dausa – Lalsot


•            Deposits in Rajasthan:

•            Limestone occurs in almost all the districts of the State, but important deposits are located in:

o Ajmer: Sheopura, Lulwa & Kesarpura

o Bundi: Lakheri and Stur

o Chittaurgarh: Nimbhahera, Parsoli

o Jodhpur: Bilara & Basa

o Nagaur: Mundwa & Gotan

o Pali: Deoli Hulan

o Sirohi:Abu Road

o Jaisalmer: Khuiala and Bandha

•            Uses:

o One of the most important industrial mineral

o Required in the manufacture of lime, cement.

o Chemicals –  soda-ash, caustic-soda, bleaching powder, calcium carbide

o Fertilizer – Ammonium Nitrate

o As flux in iron and steel, ferro-alloy and other metallurgical industries.


•            Deposits in Rajasthan: Banswara – Bhukhia-Jagpura-Delwara belt


•            Ore: Beryl (Silicate of Beryllium and Aluminium)

•            Rajasthan is the principal producer

•            Deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan

o            Ajmer: Lohagarh, Gujarwara

o            Udaipur: Acheiwas

o            Bhilwara: Titoli, Deora Guda

o            Nagaur

•            Use:

o As moderator in Nuclear Power Reactors.

o Green transparent variety of beryl is emerald which is a precious stone


•            Deposits of Bismuth in Rajasthan:

o Narda, Neem-ka-Thana Tehsil, Sikar district

•            Use:

o Medical Preparations

o Radar Equipments

o To make alloys required in production Atomic Bomb


•            Deposits in Rajasthan:

o Beawer-Ajmer belt: Dhand

o Bhilwara belt: Bagor-Lesva

o Dungarpur-Banswara belt: Chota-Padri

o Tonk belt: Dholi & Bhojapura

o Kaunthal belt in Udaipur district; chief mines at Bhagwanpura and Ran

•            Use:

o            used extensively in electrical and electronic industry due to its excellent dielectric strength and insulating properties


•            Rajasthan accounts for about 96% of the country’s total production of asbestos, whereas Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the other producing States contribute the remaining 4%.

•            Deposits in Rajasthan:              Mainly located in Southern parts of Rajasthan

o Ajmer: Kanwali in Kota Reserve forest area, Arjanpura, Nai-Khurd

o Alwar: palpur, Dhalawar

o Bhilwara: Barana

o Dungarpur: Dewal, Mundwara

o Sirohi: Bori-ki-Bhuj

o Udaipur: Kagdar-ki-Pal,Rakhabdeo,Jogi-ka-Gudha,Antalia,Bhauva

o Pali: Kanotia-Ramgarh

China Clay

•            Rajasthan contributes 50% of share of Production of China Clay in India.

•            Deposits in Rajasthan

o Bikaner: Mudh, Chandi, Kotri-Marh-Gura area

o Barmer: Bolia, Gunga

o Nagaur: Khajwana

o Sawai Madhopur: Raesena , Basu

o Sikar: Buchara

o Chittor: Eral & Sawa

•            Uses:

o China clay is used in Industries like ceramic, refractory, textile, paper, rubber and pesticides.


•            Deposits in Rajasthan

o Ajmer: Kajla Kabra

o Alwar: Jhiri, Dhani & Nizra

o Bhilwara: Kosithan

o Jaipur

o Jaisalmer

o Jhunjhunun


•            Deposits in Rajasthan

o Ajmer: Pink variety from Tatarpur & Khairthal

o Alwar

o Jaipur: Dudwa near Neem-ka-Thana

o Pali: Kalalia, Khinwal

o Sikar: Dudawas and Haridas-ka-Bas

• Uses:

o Chiefly used in the ceramic and glass industries and in insulator making.


•            In terms of deposits of Flourite, Rajasthan 2nd and Gujarat 1st

•            Deposits in Rajasthan

o Dungarpur: Mando-ki-Pal-Kahila belt

o Jalore: Karara (Karda)

o Jhunjhunu: Chokri Chapoli

o Sikar: Salwarai

o Sirohi: Balda


•            Rajasthan: 90% of total production in India

•            Deposits of Gypsum in Rajasthan:

o Jaisalmer: Sri Mohan Garrh

o Barmer: Utarlai & Kavas, Chittar-Ka-Par and Thob

o Ganganagar: Siramsar, Mahala, Pallu

o Nagaur: Bhadwasi, Dhakoria, Kharat, Mandava

o Bikaner: Jamsar (largest deposit in State)

•            Used in making:

o Portland Cement

o Plaster of Paris

o Paints

o Fertilizer


• Deposit in Rajasthan

o            Bikaner, Chittaurgarh, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Udaipur

• Used:

o            Directly as paint material or to give colour, body and opacity to paint, cement, linoleum, rubber, glasses, enamels, plastics etc.

Rock Phosphate

•            Rock phosphate is popularly known as phosphorite

•            Deposits in Rajasthan

o Udaipur: Jhamar Kotra (largest in the country),Maton, Karbaria-ka-Gurha and Dakan Kotra.

o Banswara: Sallopat and Ram-ka-Munna

o Chittorgarh: Jaoda deposit

o Jaisalmer: Birmania, Fatehgarh, Rupsi & Nibh Dungar

o Jaipur: Achrol

•            Uses:

o            Essential ingredient in the manufacture of superphosphate, a fertilizer


•            Rajasthan is the only Wollastonite producing state in India

•            Deposits in Rajasthan

o Pali-Sirohi: Khera-Uparla, Belka Pahar near Khila in Sirohi district

o Ajmer: GolaAlipura

• Uses

o is used in the ceramic, enamel, glass, matches, paints, paper, plastics and plywood industries

o in the preparation of artware, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, insulators

o as an extender of short-fibred asbestos or as a replacement for non-fibrous materials.