Let’s look at the important facts on Environment. Remember, this list is NOT exhaustive! It will cover all the fundamentals you should know, but there is no limit to what should be studied in GK & Current Affairs 🙂
|Major multilateral environment agreements (MEAs)|
|Convention on Wetlands of 1971 International Importance (Ramsar Convention)||1971||Conservation and wise use of wetlands, primarily as habitat for the water-birds|
|Convention for the Protection of World Cultural and Natural||1972||Protection and conservation of cultural Heritage and natural heritage|
|Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)||1973||International trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora|
|Bonn Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals||1979||Conservation, management and wise use of migratory species of wild animals and their habitats|
|Vienna Convention for Protection of the Ozone Layer||1985||Protection of atmospheric ozone layer above the planetary boundary layer|
|Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer||1987||Protection of atmospheric ozone layer above the planetary boundary layer|
|Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal||1989||Regulation of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal|
|United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)||1992||Changes in the earth’s climate system due to anthropogenic interference|
|Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC||1997||Quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments for Annex I Parties|
|Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)||1992||Biological diversity and biological resources|
|Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the CBD||2000||Regulation of transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs)|
|United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification||1994||Combating desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, particularly in Africa|
|Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade||1998||Promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among the Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals, in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm and to contribute to their environmentally sound use|
|Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants||2001||Protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants|
Important Environmental Legislations and Policies in India
- The Indian Forest Act, 1927
- Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
- Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
- Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
- Environment Protection Act, 1986.
- National Forest Policy, 1988
- Management of Chemicals, Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989
- Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous micro-organisms, Genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989
- Coastal Stretches as Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, 1991
- Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
- The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 19%
- Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998
- Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000
- Biological Diversity Act, 2002
- National Environmental Policy (NEP), 2006
- Environment Impact Assessment Notification, 2006
- Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
- Waste Management Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans boundary Movement) Rules, 2008
National Green Tribunal (NGT)
- NGT was established on 18th October 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010.
- It works for effective and expeditious disposal of cases related to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right related to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property, and for matters connected with these and having bearing on this.
- It is a specialized body equipped with all the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues.
- The Tribunal is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, however, it is guided by the principles of natural justice.
- Initially, the NGT sittings are proposed at five places with circuit provisions for making itself more accessible. New Delhi is the principal place of sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai are the other 4 places of sittings of the Tribunal.
- The Government with consultation of the Chief Justice of India appoints its Chairperson.
- Justice Swatanter Kumar, a Judge of the Supreme Court has been appointed as the second Chairperson of the NGT.
- Forest Clearance doesn’t come under purview of NGT.