RAJASTHAN ECONOMY : HUMAN RESOURCES
• The National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4), the fourth in the NFHS series, provides information on population, health and nutrition for India and each State / Union territory.
• NFHS-4, for the first time, provides district-level estimates for many important indicators. The NFHS-3 was conducted in 2005-06. After a gap of 10 years, NFHS-4 (2015-16) has been released recently by the ministry of health.
Key Observations for Rajasthan from NFHS-4:
• NFHS-4 fieldwork for Rajasthan was conducted from 23 January 2016 to 21 July 2016 by Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR University) and gathered information from 34,915 households, 41,965 women, and 5,892 men.
• Infant mortality rate (IMR) in Rajasthan has taken a dip from 65 per 1,000 live births to 41 per 1,000 live births in the past 10 years.
• However, according to NFHS -4, there is a vast difference between IMR in rural areas and in the urban areas. In rural areas, IMR is 44 deaths per 1,000 live births. In urban areas of the state, it is 31 deaths per 1,000 live births.
• Under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) has also witnessed a dip of 34 points in the state in the past 10 years from 85 per 1,000 live births to 51 per 1,000 live births.
• More percentage of women in urban areas is receiving maternal and child care in comparison to their rural counterparts. The difference between urban and rural women in getting maternal treatment indicates that rural women are yet to get the same kind of health facilities which the urban women are getting.
• Percentage of children in urban areas receiving vaccination against diseases is higher in comparisons to kids in rural areas. NFHS-4 shows that 53.1% of children (12-23 months) in rural areas are fully immunised wheras 60.9% of such children in urban areas have received vaccination.
• Percentage of child marriages has gone down significantly over the last 10 years. In 2005 06, 65.2% of women in the 2024 year age-group had got married before 18 years. The percentage of such women has reduced to 35.4% in 201516, reporting a decline of 29.8%
• There has been a decline in spousal violence cases and a rise in women having bank accounts. The percentage of women experiencing spousal violence has also seen a huge drop. NFHS-4 survey says this category has dipped from 46.3% to 25.1%.
• Over the past 10 years, the percentage of women participating in household decisions has risen from 65.1% in 2005-06 to 81.7% in 2015-16.
• There is also a decline in the percentage of women with anaemia. Ten years ago, 52.6% of non-pregnant women and 61.7% of pregnant women were anaemic. But, now it has reduced to 46.8% among non-pregnant and 46.6% among pregnant women.
• As far as access to healthcare facilities is concerned, more women are now have such facilities in hospitals. In 2005-06, 29.6% of the total childbirths happened in hospitals. This has increased to 84% in 2015-16. Additionally, now, 86.6% of the births are assisted by a doctor nurse or any other health personnel in comparison to only 41% 10 years ago.
• Women are taking literacy seriously. The NFHS data shows that the literacy rate has increased from 36.2% to 56.5%, a jump of 20.3% over past 10 years.
• The state has witnessed a sharp decline in the total fertility rate (TFR) over the past 10 years, Rajasthan’s TFR has reduced to 2.4, which is still slightly higher than 2.1 — the goal for achieving a stable population growth. The TFR is calculated as an average number of children expected to be born per woman during her entire span of reproductive period.
• The percentage of children who are severely wasted (low weight for height) has increased in the state in a decade from 7.3% to 8.6%. Besides, only 3.4% of the total children in the 6-23-month category receive adequate diet in the state.
• India adds 12 million people to its workforce every year, however, less than 4 per cent have ever received any formal training. Our workforce readiness is one of the lowest in the world and a large chunk of existing training infrastructure is irrelevant to industry needs. Thus youth in India faces two edged problem, first there is shortfall of jobs, secondly, they lack training & skills required to be able to apply & get selected for the job. Skill Development aims to weed out this mismatch in skills between demand & supply.
Ministry & Departments:
• In 2014, Government of India has set up Ministry of Skill Development And Entrepreneurship, to coordinate all skill development efforts across the country. Industrial training, apprenticeship and other skill development responsibilities were transferred from the Ministry of Labour and Employment to this new Ministry on 16 April 2015.
• Consequently, in Rajasthan, for better focus on skill development and entrepreneurship, Government of Rajasthan created a new Department of Skill, Employment and Entrepreneurship integrating the verticals of ITIs, Employment Exchanges, RSLDC and Apprenticeship.
Rajasthan Skill & Livelihoods Development Corporation (RSLDC)
• Rajasthan was one of the first states in the country to set up a Skill Mission, Rajasthan Mission on Livelihoods (RMoL) in 2004 for skill development in state.
• In 2009-10, RMoL was was rechristened as Rajasthan Mission on Skill and Livelihoods and RSLDC was incorporated as Section 25 Company, a Not for Profit company, with the Chief Secretary as the Chairman of the Company.
• RSLDC is the State Skill Mission of the Rajasthan and all skill development initiatives in the state are executed through RSLDC.
• The main objective of RSLDC is to organise skill-training program across the State.
RSLDC is executing following schemes/projects for development of skill and entrepreneurship in the State:
• Employment Linked Skill Training Programme (ELSTP)
• Regular Skill Training Programme (RSTP)
• Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)
• Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
Mukhya Mantri Yuva Kaushal Yojana (MMYKY)
• The Mukhya Mantri Yuva Kaushal Yojana (MMYKY), launched on 7th November, 2019, endeavors to integrate Skill Development in academic colleges. Skill Development Centers located within college premises are offering domain and Life Skills/ Soft Skills courses to improve employability of College student of graduation level.
• The objective of this program is to provide employability skills through a combination of soft skills and domain based skills to students across colleges so that after training they can avail wage or self-employment opportunities
• The scheme is being implemented in joint collaboration of RSLDC and College Education Department (Commissionorate of College Education, Rajasthan) and the batches are being conducted by training partners empaneled by RSLDC by using college premises of respective colleges.
• Under this scheme, 45 special courses have been prepared which are relevant to college youth. Courses are having maximum duration of 350 hours. In each domain course, 90 hours of soft skill component are incorporated. While the scheme is for college going youth which may opt further higher education (Master’s Degree or so), the scheme is exempted from placement norms.
• During first phase of this scheme RSLDC has allotted targets to train 6,000 youth. Age eligibility for the scheme is 17 to 30 years.
• RSLDC has forged the partnerships under flexi MoU scheme with the opportunity for industry to customise the course curriculum as per their industry demands and benefit the youth with exposure to industry environment and their 360 degree career development.
• Rajasthan ILD Skilled University (RISU) is being established at Jamdoli, Jaipur with cooperation of Industrial Financial Cooperation of India. With the enactment of the Rajasthan ILD Skills University Jaipur Act, 2017, after the passage of the Bill in the State Legislative Assembly of Rajasthan on 7th March, 2017, the Rajasthan ILD Skills University (RISU) has become the first Skills University in the Public Sector in the Country.
• Employment situation in Rajasthan has been influenced by rapid growth of population, agricultural fluctuations and slow industrial growth of state.
• The situation of underemployment and unemployment has been worsening with passage of time. However, before getting into the number and details, let’s understand different aspects unemployment and how unemployment is measured.
What is Unemployment ?
• To most, the word, unemployed means being without work. Unemployment is defined as the condition of being unemployed, or, it refers to the number or proportion of people in the working population who are unemployed (have no jobs).
• An unemployed person is one who is an active member of the labour force and is able to and seeks work, but is unable to find work during a specified reference period (a week or a month or a year).
• The unemployment rate is the ratio of the number of unemployed persons in the labour force per thousand.
Types of Unemployment:
• This kind of unemployment occurs when there is any change in consumer demand and technology in the economy. For instance, when computers were introduced, many workers were dislodged because of a mismatch between the existing skills of the workers and the requirement of the job.
• When there is an economy-wide decline in aggregate demand for goods and services, employment declines and unemployment correspondingly increases.
• This type of unemployment refers to a transition period of looking for a new job, for different reasons, such as seeking a better job, being fired from a current job, or having voluntarily quit a current job. The period of time between the current to a new job is referred to as frictional or temporary unemployment.
• A type of frictional unemployment, occurs in specific activities or occupations which are characterized by seasonal work.
• Open unemployment arises when a person, voluntarily or involuntarily, keeps himself or herself out of consideration for certain jobs.
• The condition of those who work part time because fill time jobs are unavailable or employed on a full time basis but the services they render may actually be much less than full time.
• Those who are employed in occupations requiring lower levels of skills than they are qualified for.
• Those who actually work long hours but earn only a low income below the poverty line i.e. in spite of being employed, remain in relative poverty due to low levels of wages and earnings.
Measurement of Un-Employment:
In India, two main organisations which generate and compile data on workers are:
1. The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) and
2. Office of the Registrar General of Census
• NSSO uses the concept of ‘Usual Principal Status’ (UPS) as a time reference period for identifying workers. NSSO uses three reference periods to describe the activity status of a worker. These reference periods are – a year, a week and a day.
1. UPS Criteria: On basis of UPS of people, a person is known to be employed if he or she was engaged in an economic activity for a longer period of time (183 days or more) in 365 days.
• ‘Subsidiary Status’ – A ‘subsidiary status worker’ is that worker who was engaged in an economic activity in a subsidiary capacity during the reference period.
2. Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status Unemployment (UPSS) = UPS unemployed + Subsidiary un employed
• The UPSS criterion adds an additional group of persons to the UPS employed. These are UPS non-works who have done intermittent work as a subsidiary activity during the reference year
3. ‘Current Weekly Status’ (CWS) – refers to those who are employed for at least an hour during the reference week or the number employed in a average week
UPS, UPSS, CWS – overestimate employment because of the way they are defined.
4. ‘Current Daily Status’ (CDS) – this refers to the number of persons who did not find work on a day, or on some days, during the survey week.
• CDS employment measures the rate of utilisation of the labour force in terms of person-days. While the first three measures overestimate, to some extent, levels of employment because of the way they are defined, the CDS measure gives a closer estimate of these levels.
• Visible underemployment = CWS – CDS
Employment Rates in Rajasthan
Initiatives taken by Government to reduce Unemployment in State
Rajasthan Unemployment Allowance Scheme (Mukhaymantri Yuva Sambal Yojana)
• State Govt. started providing unemployment allowance from 1st February 2019.
• The State Government has revised the earlier unemployment allowance to ₹3,000 per month for men and ₹ 3,500 per month for women and specially-abled persons.
• For upto 2 years or till one gets employment, whichever is earlier.
• As of December 2019 – 1,59,728 beneficiaries.
Employment Schemes by Government
• Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA)
• There has been poverty in all societies over a long period. In India however poverty is a major problem. In recent times there has been an acceptance of poverty as a social problem. India with the coming of independence has made some efforts to raise the level of income of people living in poverty.
• Situation in Rajasthan is not different from rest of India; poverty in Rajasthan is also a social problem.
Definitions of Poverty:
• United Nations defines two types of Poverty, one is absolute poverty and other is relative poverty. It considers Absolute poverty as poverty in relation to the amount of money necessary to meet basic fields such as food, clothing, and shelter.
• While, it defines relative poverty as poverty in relation to the economic status of other members of the society: people are poor if they fall below prevailing standards of living in a given societal context.
• World Bank uses the same methodology as United Nations for defining poverty line using material income or consumption as the basis. The bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$1.90per day and moderate poverty as less than $3.10 a day.
National Methodology for estimating Poverty
1. Pre independence poverty estimates:
• First of all done by Dada Bhai Naroji. His method was based on cost of subsistence diet i.e. ‘rice or flour, dhal, mutton, vegetables, ghee, vegetable oil and salt’.
• Next, in 1938, the National Planning Committee Like the earlier method, they also formulated poverty line based on a minimum standard of living.
2. Post independence poverty estimates:
• The Planning Commission used to measures poverty using methodology recommended by expert groups that it constituted from time to time. The data estimates came from the consumer expenditure surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).
• In 1962, the Planning Commission constituted a working group to estimate poverty nationally, and it formulated separate poverty lines for rural and urban areas – of Rs 20 and Rs. 25 per capita per year respectively.
• In 1971 VM Dandekar and N Rath made the first systematic assessment of poverty in India, based on National Sample Survey (NSS) data from 1960-61. First time the concept of poverty on basis of calorie consumption was brought to lime light. Their poverty line was to be derived from the expenditure that was adequate to provide 2250 calories per day in both rural and urban areas.
• Shortcoming: The consumption requirement for male female and urban rural labour is completely different from one another.
• Alagh Committee (1979): In 1979, separated both poverty lines and calorie consumption based on rural and urban requirements. For subsequent years Poverty Lines were to be calculated in accordance with inflation.
Rural 2400 cal – Rs 49
Urban 2100 cal – Rs 56
• Lakdawala Committee (1993): Added more features and made above more efficient
(i) consumption expenditure based on calorie consumption as earlier
(ii) first time state specific poverty lines were constructed and these were to updated using CPI-IW (industrial worker) in urban areas and CPI-AL (agri labour) in rural areas.
Meaning : PL for all states separately and for country also. This assumes that the basket of goods and services used to calculate CPI-IW and CPI-AL reflect the consumption patterns of the poor.
• Tendulkar Committee (2009): In 2009, a Planning Commission expert group, chaired by Suresh Tendulkar, reviewed the methodology for poverty estimation and suggested changes to the way poverty is measured. The committee recommended four major changes:
(i) A shift away from calorie consumption based poverty estimation;
(ii) A uniform Poverty Line Basket across rural and urban India;
(iii) A change in the price adjustment procedure to correct spatial and temporal issues with price adjustment; and
(iv) An incorporation of private expenditure on health and education while estimating poverty.
• The Committee recommended using Mixed Reference Period based estimates, as opposed to Uniform Reference Period based estimates that were used in earlier methods for estimating poverty.
• Rangarajan Committee: In 2012, the Planning Commission constituted a new expert panel on poverty estimation. The Committee submitted its report in 2014.
• After Rangarajan Report in 2014, NITI Aayog constituted a task force for finding a new suitable approach to poverty line in India.
Definition & Measurement of Poverty in Rajasthan
National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)
• NRLM is a poverty alleviation programme implemented by Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India in 2011. NRLM gives a new approach of identifying poor through the poor itself, it believes that the poor can be identified using a participatory approach by the community.
NRLM divides population into 3 categories:
• Very Poor (family income less than Rs. 50,000 per annum)
• Poor (family income Rs. 50.000 and less than 1 lakh per annum) &
• Non – poor (family income greater than 1 lakh per annum).
National Food Security Act (NFSA 2013) Method
• Rajasthan was one of the first state to implement NFSA, it had already set the criteria for beneficiaries and completed the process of selection on 20 September 2013.
• Four task forces were appointed by Government of Rajasthan among which two were related to decision making for criteria aimed at rural and urban areas, third to decide the supplementary nutrition for rural and urban areas, and the fourth for the requisite implementation process at district level.
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Rural areas:
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Urban areas:
Conclusion for Poverty Measurement:
• The NITI Aayog Task Force discussed and evaluated all methods of poverty measurement mentioned above. After discussion, it was decided that identification using indicators of National Food security act (NFSA) is most suitable for the estimation of poverty in Rajasthan.
Scenario of Poverty in Rajasthan
• Rajasthan is the 7th most populous state in India. Since 2005, the state has made progress in poverty reduction supported by faster growth. In addition, consumption inequality increased only marginally in this period. As a result, Rajasthan stands out among India’s low-income states.
• As per the poverty estimates released by Govt. of India, Punjab has the lowest poverty ratio followed by Kerala and Andhra Pradesh among the select 15 states, Madhya Pradesh has the highest poverty ratio followed by Orissa & Bihar, Rajasthan with 16% population below poverty line falls in middle with 7th rank.
• This shows that in Rajasthan 16% of the rural population has monthly per capita expenditure below Rs. 905 (Poverty Line of rural Rajasthan = Rs. 905) which makes it a non BIMARU State.
Sustainable Development Goals
• In September 2015, UN Member States adopted a new ambitious agenda, Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (also known as Agenda 2030).
• The SDGs 2030 Agenda is a plan of action focusing on 5Ps namely People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
• The SDGs are part of Resolution 70/1 of the United Nations General Assembly, the 2030 Agenda.
• The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 global goalsthat are required to be achieved by all countries and stakeholders by 2030. In order to ‘Leave no one behind’ it is important that we achieve theme by 2030.
• The 17 SDGs comprise of 169 associated targets, which are interconnected in nature. Each target has defined monitorable indicators to measure progress towards reaching the target. In total, there are 244 indicators listed in the SDGs global indicator framework for monitoring the progress.
The Goals are:
• Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
• Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
• Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
• Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
• Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
• Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
• Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
• Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
• Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
• Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries
• Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
• Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
• Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
• Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
• Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
• Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
• Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
India’s Commitment to SDG’s
• India has already taken significant strides towards the achievement of SDGs with institutional architecture being already set up and several organisations/ministries have been entrusted with responsibilities to implement the Agenda 2030.
National Indicator Framework (NIF)
• The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) is nodal ministry for drafting the National Indicator Framework (NIF) in consultation with the States/Union Territories (UTs), implement, monitor and produce timely reports to document progress of the SDGs. The NIF has been developed with the objective of monitoring and reporting on progress on SDGs at national level.
• The NIF comprise of 306 monitorable indicators for monitoring of SDGs. These indicators not only help in the monitoring the SDGs but also assists in formulating policy/guidelines to the policy makers and executive agencies can issued suitable direction to the implementers of various schemes and programmes.
Metadata of NIF
• An important initiative undertaken by the Government of India for monitoring of NIF is by developing metadata for every national indicator. Metadata is an important document on the indicators that helps in standardization of data of indicators across the country. Further the metadata also enables the international agencies to integrate data from India to the global framework.
• The MoS&PI has already published the baseline report on SDGs indicators titled ‘Sustainable Development Goals National Indicator Framework Baseline Report 2015-16’ including metadata for 191 national indicators.
SDG India Index
• With the objective of measuring the progress of SDGs and develop competitiveness among States and UTS, NITI Aayog has released two versions of SDG India Index till now.
SDG India Index 1.0:
• In the month of December 2018, the NITI Aayog came out with the first ‘SDG India Index Baseline report 2018’. Based on the SDG India Index, States and UTs have been classified into 4 categories comprises achiever, front runner, performer and aspirant.
• As per the Report, Rajasthan has been ranked as performer on Composite SDG India Index with the Index Score of 59.
SDG India Index 2.0:
• Launched in December, 2019. The Index has been constructed using 100 indicators.
• As per the 2nd report, Rajasthan has been ranked as ‘Performer’ on Composite SDG India Index 2.0 with the Index Score of 57.
• India has been laying significant emphasis on developing indices for various social sectors. In pursuit of monitoring the progress of Sustainable Development Goals, NITI Aayog has developed sectoral indices and programmes for Water, Education and Health sector i.e. Composite Water Management Index, School Education Quality Index, Health Index, Aspirational Districts Programme etc.
Rajasthan’s Commitment to SDGs
• On the lines of Central Government, Rajasthan has also significant initiatives towards effective implementation and achievement of SDG.
A. Institutional Setup for SDGs in Rajasthan
• Rajasthan has set up a state level implementation and monitoring committee under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary, Government of Rajasthan. This committee is responsible for setting up the states SDGs agenda, developing the institutional framework at state level, assigning roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in the state and review the progress made in the state.
• State Planning Department has been declared as nodal department for SDGs implementation & monitoring. A dedicated cell/centre has been established in Directorate of Economics & Statistics for collection of data on Targets/National Indicators and review of progress.
B. Constitution of Sectoral Working Groups
• As per recommendations of state level implementation and monitoring committee, 7 sectoral working groups were constituted to suggest implementation & monitoring measures.
Group Name Related Goals
Group 1: Poverty Eradication & Food Security 1, 2 and 12
Group 2: Healthcare, Water & Sanitation 3 and 6
Group 3: Education 4 and 5
Group 4: Growth, Employment & Infrastructure 7, 8, 9 and 11
Group 5: Social Security & Empowerment 5 and 10
Group 6: Climate Change, Sustainable use of Ecosystem 13 and 15
Group 7: Peace & Justice, Promote Partnership 16 and 17
C. Constitution of District Level Committees for SDG implementation
• Keeping in view localisation of SDGs, better planning and implementation at grassroot level, and build enabling environment at District and Block level, a District level SDGs implementation and monitoring committee has been also constituted under the chairmanship of District Collector.
• The Deputy Director/Assistant Director, Economics and Statistics of the respective district is nominated as the Member Secretary of this committee and district level officers of various associated departments are made members of this committee. This committee is entrusted to prepare district level roadmap for SDG implementation.
D. Capacity Building at Grass-root Level
• For District Planning and Panchayati Raj Institutions level, Indira Gandhi Panchayati Raj & Gramin Vikas Sansthan (IGPR & GVS) is being regularly organized trainings/workshops for sensitization and awareness development on SDGs and their integrations with Gram Panchayat Development Plans and District Plan.
E. Publications & reports:
• Directorate of Economics & Statistics has released ‘Rajasthan SDG Status Report-2020’ in the month of January, 2020 on the lines of National Indicators Framework. Total 215 indicators of NIF have been covered in this status report and it also includes schematic and priority indicator defined by NITI Aayog.
• To measure the performance of districts on the SDG’s, Rajasthan Sustainable Development Goal Index has been developed.
Rajasthan Sustainable Development Goal Index
• Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of Rajasthan has released ‘Rajasthan SDG Status Report-2020’ in the month of January, 2020 on the lines of National Indicators Framework. To measure the performance of districts on the SDG’s, Rajasthan Sustainable Development Goal Index or Rajasthan SDG Index has been developed.
• The SDG Index aims to measure the performance of districts on the SDG’s. Additionally, SDG Index can be broken down into goal level score in order to help understand what goals have been achieved and where more effort is needed.
Rajasthan Sustainable Development Index Methodology
• Department of Economics & Statistics, Government of Rajasthan selected the methodology and chose the set of indicators from the 62 indicators of NITI Aayog’s Sustainable Development Goals Index for developing a sustainable development goals index for the state of Rajasthan.
• The Rajasthan’s SDG Index has been developed using 31 indicators across 12 goals. To develop this index, data were used from publicly available sources. These data were aggregated to develop individual SDG score for each district in Rajasthan, which was then used to develop the Sustainable development goals index for Rajasthan.
• For each goal, the SDG score ranges between 0 and 100, where 0 being the worst among the group and 100 signifying that all the targets for that goal/all goals have been achieved.
Rajasthan SDG District-wise Ranking Overview:
Rajasthan: District wise SDG Score Snapshot
• Jhunjhunu has secured 1st position.
• Jaisalmer occupies last position.