Economy of Raj II

Delhi Law Academy

Livestock of Rajasthan

Importance of Livestock in Rajasthan

•            Service Sector majorly drives the economy of Rajasthan but Agriculture and allied activities continues to be chief source of livelihood in rural region.

•            55% of total area of Rajasthan is desert and so livestock is one of the main source of livelihood. Other than providing source of livelihood, livestock also provides food security and insurance against poverty.

•            Development of livestock sector has a significant beneficial impact in generating employment and reducing poverty in rural areas.

•            Livestock is the main source of animal protein for the population. It is estimated that more than 80% rural families keep livestock in their households.

•            Contribution of animal husbandry sector to the GDP of the State has been estimated to be around 10.21 %.

•            About 35% of the income of small and marginal farmers comes from dairy and animal husbandry. In arid areas the contribution may be as high as 50%

What is Livestock?

o            Livestock are animals that are domesticated and raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber, and labor.

o            They include cattle, goats etc.

o            The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of these animals is known as animal husbandry.

What is Mixed Farming?

o            Mixed farming is a farming system which involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock.

What are the advantages of Mixed Farming?

o            Mixed Farming offers highest return on farm business, as the by-products of both farm and livestock are properly utilized.

o            It provides work throughout year.

o            Provides efficient utilization of land, labour, equipment and other resources.

o            Crop by-products such as straw, fodder are used for feeding of livestock and in return they provide milk.

o            Manures available from livestock are useful in maintenance of soil fertility.

o            It helps in supplying all the food needs (food security) of the family members

o            Intensive cultivation is possible.

o            Provides livelihood security in case of drought, floods,

Importance of Livestock in Economy of Rajasthan:

o            Livestock provides 35% of draft power in the state

o            Rajasthan has 40% of Sheep stock in India.

o            More than 80% rural families keep livestock in their households.

o            Contribution of animal husbandry sector to the GDP of the State has been estimated to be approximately 8 %

Strengths of livestock of Rajasthan:

o            Rajasthan has about 11.27 per cent of the livestock of the country,

o            The State accounts for about 6.98 per cent of cattle,

o            11.94 per cent of buffaloes,

o            16.03 per cent of goats,

o            13.95 per cent of sheep and

o            81.50 per cent of camels of the country.

o            The State contributed 12 per cent of milk and 32 per cent of wool to the nation’s production in the year 2016-17.

o            More than 80% rural families keep livestock in their households.

o            Rajasthan ranks 2nd in Milk production in India.

o            Rajasthan ranks 2nd in per capita milk availability.

o            Rajasthan ranks 1st wool production in India.

o            Rajasthan produces 10% of meat in India.

o            Rajasthan Ranks 14th in egg production in India

Constraints in development of Livestock in Rajasthan.

o            Livestock is an unorganized sector and holdings are very small, further much of the livestock belongs to economically weaker section which restricts it to being just source of livelihood.

o            Markets for livestock are also unorganized and suffers from inadequate investment by Public (State) & Private sector.

o            Inadequate availability of quality breeds

o            Lack of health &nutrition support, along with frequent occurrence of natural calamities that result in high occurrence of diseases and mortality.

o            Rajasthan is majorly an arid region and there is inadequate availability of fodder & feed resources

o            Inadequate infrastructure in terms of cooperatives, veterinary and knowledge support.

Types of livestock on basis of their utility:

•            Dairy (Milch) breeds

o            Cows (Females): Gives high amount of milk o Bull (Males): are not good for work at farm

o            Examples: Shahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir and Deoni

•            Draught breeds:

o            Cows yield poor milk production

o            Bulls are good at draught and are used for carrying out agricultural work like tilling, irrigation and carting.

o            Examples Kangayam, Umblacherry, Amritmahal, Hallikar.

•            Dual Breeds:

o            Cows are good at milk production

o            Bulls are good at doing work

o            Examples Ongole, Hariana, Tharparker, Kankrej, Krishna valley, Rathi and Goalo Mewathi.

Draft Rajasthan Livestock & Dairy Development Policy 2019

•            Livestock production systems in the state are mostly based on traditional knowledge, low cost agricultural residues and agro-byproducts leading to comparatively low productivity.

•            Livestock development falls within the jurisdiction of the State Government. Hence it is the State’s responsibility to formulate suitable policy guidelines for overall development of the sector and to ensure faster growth of the livestock sector including sub-sectors viz. small ruminants, horses, camels and poultry for increased productivity and income and to generate employment opportunities in rural areas.

Aims and Objectives of the State Livestock Policy 2019

•            The State Livestock Policy aims at increasing livestock productivity and production in a sustainable manner, while protecting the environment, preserving animal bio-diversity, ensuring bio-security and farmers’ livelihood.

•            With this goal, the main objectives of the policy are as under:

•            Support the existing low input production systems for improving productivity and income.

•            To provide an enabling environment for the growth and development of the livestock sector by providing quality services and inputs.

•            To encourage establishment and growth of financially viable medium and large commercial livestock production units capable of adopting latest technology including facility for processing and value addition.

•            To promote conservation of animal bio-diversity; conservation and genetic improvement of important indigenous breeds of livestock and poultry in the State.

•            To encourage conservation of indigenous breeds of animals with special emphasis on Cattle, Camel and Horses.

•            To increase availability of feed and fodder resources to meet the requirement of livestock to attain optimal productivity.

•            To strengthen overall animal health cover through prevention, control and eradication of various disease conditions and encourage / enable the dairy cooperatives to extend veterinary services to farmers.

•            To focus on production of quality livestock products as per the international standards for food safety.

•            To encourage value addition of livestock products like milk and milk products, eggs, wool and meat & meat products etc.

•            To expand capacity of milk handled by organized dairy sector including cooperatives.

•            To provide logistic support to farmers for protection of livestock during natural calamities. Pastoralists need to be provided support for migratory animals.

•            To provide insurance support for replacement of livestock and compensation of losses.

•            To develop organic livestock production systems and focus on production of quality livestock products.

•            To enhance banking and investment support and incentive to the sector.

•            To ensure transmission and application of improved technology and management practices on the farmer’s doorstep.

•            To create an enabling environment to attract investment for improving infrastructure support, livestock production, processing, value addition and marketing in the sector.

Re-orientation of Breeding Policy for Livestock

•            State would review the breeding policies for different livestock species on a regular basis.

Conservation of Animal Bio-Diversity

•            State has rich and diverse genetic resources of livestock in the form of a large number of species, breeds, and strains within a species. Rajasthan has some of the best breeds of cattle, sheep and goats.

•            Some of these breeds have useful genes for faster growth and prolificacy. Such utility genes and breeds would be identified, conserved and utilized for breeding. The focus would be on conservation of indigenous breeds of livestock.

•            Pastoral communities, particularly those managing migratory animals like sheep, goats, camels etc. shall be supported through creation of facilities along their migratory routes for feeding, breeding, healthcare, housing, and market channels for their produce and animals.


•            Set up collection centres along the milk routes to increase procurement in the organized sector.

•            Resources of both cooperative and private sectors would be synergized.

•            Assistance to dairy cooperatives.

•            Diversification of dairy products including probiotics would be promoted to meet local demands and for exports.

•            Public Private Partnership initiatives would be supported Feed and Fodder

•            Avoid wastage of large quantity of straw and agro-industrial by-products.

•            Enhance availability of coarse grains and oil meals for livestock and poultry sector.

•            Increase production of quality fodder seeds through necessary incentives, arranging foundation seeds of different high yielding fodder varieties and modern scientific farming procedures etc.

•            Increase area under fodder cultivation, especially through use of barren and fallow lands and silviculture.

•            Appropriate resources and technologies will be made available to ensure quality fodder seed production.

•            Standards will be developed for compound feed for various species of livestock, including cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep, goats and camels and balanced ration with locally available ingredients will be encouraged.

•            Physical availability and production potential of pastures and grazing community lands will be assessed and steps will be taken to rejuvenate such lands by planting fodder trees and grasses.

•            Integrated land use planning with livestock as a component will be encouraged through Panchayati Raj Institutions.

•            State government and state agriculture/ veterinary university feed analytical labs would be strengthened.

Animal Health

•            Veterinary Services: Veterinary hospitals, dispensaries, Sub-centers, diagnostic laboratories and veterinary manpower would be improved and expanded and will continue to be provided as state owned facilities. Private investment to improve delivery of animal health services including facilities by private veterinary graduates would be encouraged.

•            Control and Eradication of Infectious Diseases: Prevention and control of infectious diseases, being a community welfare activity, would be gradually expanded by involving NGOs, cooperatives and private veterinary practitioners.

•            Disease-Free Zones: Efforts will be made to make the State free from economically important infectious diseases.

•            Disease Diagnosis: Facilities for specific and general disease diagnosis shall be strengthened by introducing quality management system.

•            Disease surveillance and forecasting: Integrated surveillance, vigilance, prevention and control mechanisms would be carried out.

•            Control of Zoonoses: Special emphasis will be laid to create awareness for control of zoonotic diseases and veterinary drug abuse to protect human health. “One-Health” concept will be strengthened through linkages with other concerned departments, such as Department of Health and Family Welfare.

•            Animal Biosecurity: States would promote responsible use of antibiotics and other medicines harmful to the environment.

•            Disaster Management: Contingency plans will be prepared and executed to maintain the productivity and welfare of livestock during various types of natural calamities and drought conditions.

•            Animal Welfare: Compliance of existing laws of the land on animal welfare will be ensured at every stage of value chain including production, transportation, slaughter, care of draught animal and animal handling.

Meat Production and Processing

•            Creation of necessary infrastructure for meat production facilities in rural areas.

•            Integrated modern abattoirs construction would be encouraged.

Quality Control and Food Safety

•            Production of organic livestock foods will be encouraged through traceability of methods of feeding, treatment and quality production.

•            Standardization of processes of production and certification of organic farming processes would be established.

•            Awareness generation among farmers and consumers regarding food safety standards would be promoted.

Institutional Credit and Livestock Insurance

•            Small holders / farmers would be encouraged / supported to organize as Self Help Groups or Joint Liability Groups to facilitate access to credit.

•            Public Private Partnership initiatives to take up such activities in clusters with linkage for institutional finance and marketing would be supported.

•            Protection against the risks due to natural calamities and disease outbreaks etc.

•            Livestock insurance would be revamped and made accessible to all farmers.

Conservation of Camels

•            Effective measures for improving desert specific draft power, milk traits, disease resistance and sports traits in Camels would be undertaken.

•            Special programmes shall be launched for conservation and propagation of camels.

•            Production, procurement and marketing of Camel milk shall be promoted.

Goshala Development

•            Framing Incentive based Goshala development policies.

•            Goshalas would be encouraged to develop as economically self-reliant units through adoption of modern farming and management practices including utilization of principle of Panchgavya as source of income.

Livestock and Environment

•            Modify the management and feeding systems so as to reduce emission of green house gases by ruminants.

•            Better management of farm yard manure through composting and bio-gas plants.

•            Awareness building on improved practices of livestock, feed and waste management.

Information System and Human Resources

•            Identify existing data gaps and generate data for proper planning & implementation. Analyse data to correlate and assess the impact of various program.

•            Human Resource: Developing skills of veterinary professionals and farmer beneficiaries. Optimal human resource planning.

20th Livestock Census 2019

•            The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying under Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying attributes critical importance to livestock and to the collection and availability of up-to-date and accurate data related to livestock, as they are the vital component of rural economy.

•            20th Livestock Census of Rajasthan was conducted as part of 20th Livestock Census of India. This post lists summary as per the provisional data released by the department.

•            Animal Husbandry is a major economic activity of the rural peoples, specially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Rajasthan.

What is Livestock Census ?

•            The Livestock Census is the main source of such data in the country. The livestock census is conducted across the country periodically since 1919.

•            The census usually covers all domesticated animals and head counts of these animals are taken.

•            So far, 19 Livestock Censuses were conducted in participation with State Governments and UT Administrations.

•            The last Livestock Census was conducted in 2012 as 19th Livestock Census – Statistics

•            The 20th Livestock Census was launched during the month of October 2018.

•            The enumeration was done in both rural and urban areas.

•            Various species of animals (cattle, buffalo, mithun, yak, sheep, goat, pig, horse, pony, mule, donkey, camel, dog, rabbit and elephant)/poultry birds (fowl, duck and other poultry birds) possessed by the households, household enterprises/ non-household enterprises were counted at that site.

•            Another important feature of 20th Livestock Census is it has been designed to capture Breed-wise number of animals and poultry birds.

Summary of Livestock Populationin Rajasthan 
S.NOVarietyState Rank in IndiaPopulation (In Lakhs) 2019
8Horses & Ponies30.34

Cattle Breeds in Rajasthan

Breeds of Cows in Rajasthan:

•            Rajasthan state has three native cattle breeds viz Rathi, Tharparkar and Nagori, having great deal of endurance.


•            Origin from Suhalak area (Nagaur), mostly found in Nagaur district.

•            Colour: White, light Grey.

•            This species gives less milk.

•            Type: Draught

•            Used for ploughing, cultivation, drawing water from wells as well as transportation of field produce to markets.


•            Originated in Tharparkar district (Pakistan) of undivided India and found mostly in Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts.

•            Origin of the breed: Malani (Barmer)

•            Also known as White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi and Thari.

 •           Cows excellent production of milk.

•            Reared for dual purpose of draught and milk production as it can produce milk under rigorous feeding and unfavourable environmental conditions.


•            Mostly found in Lunkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and parts of Jaisalmer districts.

•            Females are good at milk production but males lack draught power.


•            Kankrej is found in Rajasthan’s southwestern districts of Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore.

•            Also called as Wadad or Waged, Wadhiar.

•            Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk.

•            The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.


•            Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat.

•            In Rajasthan it is found in South-eastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Kota.


•            Mostly found in Malva area of Madhya Pradesh and Jhalawar district of Rajasthan.

•            Type : Draught

•            Colour : White

•            Males: Grey dark


•            It was originated from Rohtak, Hisar, Jind and Gurgaon districts of Haryana and also popular in Punjab, UP and parts of MP.

•            Horns are small.

•            The bullocks are powerful work animals.

Buffalo Breeds found in Rajasthan

•            In case of buffalo, there is no native breed.

•            However, enormous number of Murrah and Surti buffaloes are reared in the region.


•            Also called as Delhi, Kundi and Kali.


•            Also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.

Sheep in Rajasthan

•            Sheep husbandry has traditionally been one of the most viable elements of the agro-economic system of Rajasthan.

•            The state earns remarkable revenue from wool, mutton and other products from sheep.

•            Cost effective economy and less expensive housing make the sheep economically viable proposition for the poor people.

•            The size of flock varies from 30 to 50, to as high as 400 sheep.

Major Challenges

•            Development / Use of synthetic fibre in manufacturing of apparel and carpet wool

•            Shrinkage of pastureland

•            Poor exploitation of genetic potential of indigenous animals

•            Tow absorption of available technology

•            Insufficient health cover

•            Inadequate marketing & credit support

•            Quality of Sheep

Number of Sheep in Rajasthan

•            The 20th Livestock Census of India estimates the total number of sheep in country at 74.26 Million during 2019.

•            Rajasthan, ranks at number 4 in India in terms of number of sheep with an estimated population of 7.9 Million.

•            The census 2019 estimates that there has been a decrease of 12.95% in their numbers from 2012 census (9.1 Million).

Draft Rajasthan State Livestock and Dairy Development Policy, 2019

The draft Rajasthan State Livestock and Dairy Development Policy, 2019 outlines following guidelines for development of Meat & Wool sector in state:

•            Emphasis on small ruminants would be to improve nutrition and genetics, breeding strategies and health cover to increase proliferacy, carcass weight gain and reduced mortality to improve quality and quantity of meat, skin and wool.

•            Selection of breeding stocks through large scale screening involving farmer’s flocks would be taken as a state program. The farmers would be encouraged to be organized as cooperatives or FPOs for better access to inputs and market gains.

Sheep Migration in Rajasthan

Migration of sheep is a regular feature of sheep rearing in the western parts of Rajasthan.

•            Sheep from southern parts of Jodhpur-Jaisalmer pass through Pali and Abu-road, through Palanpur and reach up to the river beds in Baroda and Surat where they spend about two months.

•            Similarly, sheep from northern parts of these regions go through Sawai-Madhopur or Hindaun city to river banks in Mathura.

•            Usually, the farmers set out on their journey in winter and return to their homes in early monsoon.

•            In Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts the flocks are relatively stable and they migrate for short period from their home village to grazing areas in neighbouring villages when the local pastures are exhausted.

Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan:

•            Jaisalmeri

o            Found in Jaisalmer

•            Naali

o            Found in Hanumangarh, Churu, Bikaner & Jhunjhunu.

o                          Yields large quantity of wool

•            Maalpuri

o            Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Karauli & Sawai Madhopur

•            Magra

o            Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year

o            Found in Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Churu, Nagaur

•            Pugal

o            Originated from Pugal in Bikaner

•            Chokla or Shekhawati

o            Also referred to as Marino of India

o            It yields best quality wool and gives around 1-1.5 Kg per year.

•            Sonari or Chanothar

o            Sonari are distributed in Udaipur and Kota division and are common in sub-humid and humid areas.

o            They with-stand heavy rainfall conditions and extend into Gujarat state to the south

•            Marwari

o Marwari are found all over Jodhpur, Jaipur and parts of Ajmer division

Government Initiatives to develop Sheep Rearing

Sheep Breeding Programme

•            To improve the sheep population of the state genetically, by providing superior breeding males (rams) to the sheep breeders, Rajasthan Animal Husbandry Department is running a Sheep Breeding Farm at Fatehpur (Sikar).

•            According to the departmental sheep breeding policy, the indigenous pure breed Rams (Chokala, Nali and Marwari) of the farm have been distributed to sheep breeders @ Rs. 50/- per Kg live weight. In the year 2018-19, the farm has distributed 243 proven Rams at subsidized cost to sheep breeders.

The Integrated Wool Development Programme (IWDP)

•            The Integrated Wool Development Programme (IWDP) is an umbrella programme which will be implemented over three years i.e. from 2017-18 to 2019-20 in all wool producing states.



•            The Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI) is a premier Institute of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) engaged in research and extension activities on sheep.

•            It was established in 1962 at Malpura in Rajasthan. Now campus is popular by the name of Avikanagar in Tonk district.


•            The Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) was established in 1959 under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi. C.A.Z.R.I has been involved in sheep research, both under farm and rangeland conditions.

Central Wool Development Board, Ministry of Textiles


•            The Wool Testing Laboratories (Pre loom) at Bikaner & Beawar.

•            The Industrial Service Centre (Post Loom testing facilities) at Bikaner. Raw wool Scouring facilities at Beawer.

•            Computer Aided Designing Centre (CAD) for carpet at Jaipur

•            Wool Scouring and Drying Plant at Beawar

Animal Husbandry Department, GOR

•            The Animal Husbandry Department thus came in to existence in 1958 along with Sheep and Wool and Fisheries sections.

•            In 1984 the Fisheries Department was separated from the Department of Animal Husbandry making it an independent Department.

Rajasthan Livestock Development Board

•            Rajasthan Livestock development Board was setup by state government on 25.03.1998 under the Rajasthan Societies Act 1958.

Camels of Rajasthan

•            Camel is the iconic animal of Rajasthan. It is part of the cultural identity & life of the desert state.

•            In 2014, Camels (Camelus dromedaries) have been declared as the State Animal (Livestock) of Rajasthan which has about 85 per cent of India’s camel population.

•            The other major states with a sizeable camel population include Gujarat, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Act for Protection of Camels:

•            The Rajasthan Camel (Prohibition of Slaughter and Regulation of Temporary Migration or Export) Act, 2015

Breeds of Camel in Rajasthan:

•            Bikaneri

o            Found in Bikaner, Gangangar, Hanumangarh & Churu

•            Jodhpuri

o            Found mostly in Jodhpur & Nagaur districts

•            Nachna

o            This breed is fast-runner variety of camels

o            Origin from Nachna Village in Jaisalmer

•            Jaisalmeri

o            Camels of Jaisalmeri breed are found in Jaisalmer, barmer, and jodhpur

•            Kutchi

o            Camels of this variety are mainly found in Barmer & Jalore

•            Jalori

o            Camels of this variety are mainly found in Jalore & Sirohi

•            Mewari

o            This breed is extensively used for carrying loads

o            Camels of this variety are mainly found in Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh & Ajmer

•            Gomat

o            This breed to camel is famous for distant-transport and it is also a very fast runner

o            Camels of this variety are mainly found in Jodhpur and Nagaur.

•            Gurha

o            Found in Nagaur & Churu

•            Kherupal

o            Found in Bikaner & Churu

•            Alwari

o            Camels of this breed are mostly found in East-Rajasthan.

Decline in Camel Population

•            About 85 per cent of India’s camel population survives in Rajasthan. The other major states with a sizeable camel population include Gujarat, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

•            Given the current trends, Camel (Camelus dromedaries), the State Animal of Rajasthan, may soon figure in the IUCN Red List as an endangered species.

•            In the 20th Livestock Census, the camel population in the state has dipped by 71 per cent since the 1990s.

•            The latest census indicates 213,000 camels in Rajasthan, down from 746,000 in 1992.

 •           Overall, the camel population in India dipped by almost 37 per cent since 2011 and 75 per cent since 1992.

Reasons for decline of Camel Population:

•            Mechanisation

o            The camel was an important draught animal in the state, but slowly, mechanisation overtook it.

•            Smuggling

o            Camel trading is common in Bengal, Bihar and UP.

o            Animals taken from Rajasthan are sold in the markets of Itahar, Chanchal, Harishchandrapur, Ratua in West Bengal and some other areas.

o            There is a huge demand for camel meat in Bangladesh as well.

•            Proliferation of diseases

o            The most commonly found disease in camels, trypanosomiasis, which leads to still birth and dystokia.

o            Other reasons for the dwindling camel population are rampant morbidity and mortality.

•            Distorted male-female ratio of camels.

•            Ecosystem disruptions along with climate change – decrease in grazing and pasture land.

•            Tack of pastures and grazing land for these animals.

•            Policy failure

o            The State enacted the Rajasthan Camel (Prohibition of Slaughter and Regulation of Temporary Migration or Export) Act.

o            This act banned selling or transporting of these camels outside the state.

o            This has left the animal without a market outside the state.

Steps taken by Rajasthan government:

•            Declaration of Camel as State animal of Rajasthan.

•            The Rajasthan Camel (Prohibition of Slaughter and Regulation of Temporary Migration or Export) Act, 2015 to prevent illegal smuggling & trading of camels. As per the act, illegal transportation of camels, without the permission from a competent authority, is a punishable crime with rigorous imprisonment of between six months and three years and attracts a fine of Rs 5,000 to 25,000.

•            A dedicated National Research Centre on Camel (NRCC), has been started in Jorbeed, Bikaner.

•            On 2 October 2016, the Rajasthan state government announced Ushtra Vikas Yojana, an innovative new Camel Development Scheme.

o            Government of Rajasthan will support camel breeders with a subsidy of INR 10,000 (payable over a period of eighteen months) for each camel calf born, along with other measures which include training centres, improved access to veterinary treatment and research on camel products.

•            On 2 December 2016, the Indian government made the long-awaited announcement of FSSAI standards for camel milk, resolving an issue which has held back camel dairy development in India for years.

Classification of Soils:

In India, two system of classification are dominant. They are:

•            Old System of soil classification

•            New comprehensive system of soil classification

Old System of soil Classification

The old system of classification was developed by scientists (Thorpe & Smith) of U.S department of Agriculture in 1949. The classification is based upon differences in climate and mineralogy.

As per this system, soils of Rajasthan can classified into 8 types:

1.           Desert Soils

2.           Dunes and Associated Soils

3.           Brown Soils

4.           Sierozems

5.           Red Loams

6.           Hill Soils

7.           Saline Sodic Soils (Solonchaks)

8.           Alluvial Soils/and Black Soils

1.           Desert Soils

Districts- Nagaur, Jodhpur, Jalore, Barmer, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar.

Rainfall- Less than 400 mm

Texture- Sandy to Sandy loam

  • It contains a high percentage of soluble salt & has high Ph value.
  • It has varying percentage of calcium carbonate & generally poor in organic matter.
  • These soils are pale brown, single grained, deep and well drained.
  • Calcium carbonates sometime occur in form of Kankar nodules which increases with depth.
  • In most of the desert soils nitrogen is low. Range – 0.02% to 0.07%
  • It is not fertile, but it can be made fertile for agricultural crops and plants where water supply is regular by putting phosphates with nitrates
  • Under normal rainfall Kharif crops (summer) are grown but failure of crops due to low rainfall is common.

2.           Dunes and Associated Soils

Districts – Barmer, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Churu

Texture – loamy fine sand to coarse sand and may or may not be calcareous.

•            These soils are yellowish brown in colour sandy to sany loam, deep and well drained

•            Calcium carbonate, sometime occur in the form of Kankar nodules which increases with depth.

•            Cultivation is practiced in rainy season on the slopes of low to medium high dunes and usually rainfed Bajra or Kharif pulse are grown.

•            These have been grouped separately from desert soils as they are only deposited sand and little profile development has taken place.

•            Dunes are of varying heights from low shifting dunes to high and very high stabilized dunes.

3.           Brown Soils

Districts – Tonk, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Chittorgarh

Annual Rainfall – 50 cm to 75 cm is sufficient for Kharif crops.

Texture – Sandy loam to clay loam.

•            Colour: Ranges from greyish brown to yellow brown.

•            Major area of these soils is in the catchment area of Banas River.

•            They are rich in calcium salts but have poor organic matter

•            Use of fertilizers becomes essential to get good harvest

•            As the ground waters are saline, soils irrigate with these waters have accumulated salts

•            Tank irrigated soils have also developed problem of high water table.

•            Rabi crops are grown under irrigation.

4.           Sierozems

Districts – Pali, Nagaur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa (lies on both the side of Aravalli Hills)

Annual Rainfall – 50 cm to 70 cm

 Texture – Sandy loam to Sandy clay

•            Color: They are mostly yellowish brown

•            The rainfall in the area in higher than the desert of the west

•            Natural vegetation is also seen at some places.

•            The soils are suitable for cultivation but for low rainfall and high evaporation.

•            Kharif crops are rainfed and Rabi crops are grown through well irrigation.

•            In the Kharif crops Bajra, Jowar, pulses are grown and in Rabi crops wheat, mustard & vegetables are grown.

5.           Red Loams

Districts – Dungarpur, Banswara & parts of Udaipur, Chittorgarh

Rainfall – 70 cm to 100 cm

Texture – Sandy loam to sandy

•            These soils are reddish in colour with granular/crumb structure & well drained.

•            These soils have rich content of iron-oxide and devoid of calcium salts because calcium salts soluble in water and are easily washed away.

•            Soils are suitable for maize, chilies, wheat, barley and rapeseed cultivation

•            Parent material of these soils is the red sandstone or yellow sandstone which is found in Vindyan rocks.

6.           Hill Soils (Lithosols)

Districts – At the foot hills of Aravalli in Sirohi, Pali, Nagaur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara and Ajmer

Colour – Reddish to yellowish red to yellowish brown

Texture – Sandy loam to clay and well drained.

•            Cultivation of crops in these soils is very much restricting due to shallow nature of these soils and presence of stones on the surface.

•            Soil erosion due to water is another problem of these soils.

7.           Saline Sodic Soils (Solonchaks)

Saline Sodic soils are seen in the far flood plains of river Ghaggar and in Luni Basin.

Districts – In the natural depressions like the Pachpadra, Sambhar, Deedwana, Ranns of Jalore and Barmer

•            Colour – Dark grey to pale brown

•            Water table is sometime close to surface

•            Cultivation is not possible due to the impeded drainage and high degree of salinity

•            The only vegetation consists of some salt tolerant grasses and shrubs

8.           Alluvial Soils/and Black Soils

Districts – Sriganganagar (soil deposited by Ghaggar), Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jaipur.

•            The soil is deficient in lime, phosphoric acid and humus.

•            It varies from clayey to sandy loam in texture.

•            The top soil contains ‘kankar’ which lie either on sands or sandy clays.

•            A wide variety of crops including wheat, rice, cotton and tobacco are grown in this soil.

New comprehensive system of soil classification

New soil taxonomy based comprehensive system of soil classification was developed by Soil Survey Staff in 1976. This new system has 10 soil orders, which are subdivided into 47 suborders.

Under the new system, most soils of Rajasthan belong to only 5 orders – aridsols, alfisols, entisols, inceptisols and vertisols.

  1. Aridisols
  2. Alfisols
  3. Entisols
  4. Inceptisols
  5. Vertisols

1.           Aridisols

  • Aridisols are mineral soils mostly found in dry climatic.
  • Districts: These occur extensively in the western half of Rajasthan divided by the Aravalli axis and some parts of Alwar, Jaipur and Ajmer districts which fall on the eastern half.
  • They commonly have horizons of accumulation of soluble salts and carbonates.

2.           Alfisols

•            Districts: Parts of Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Banwara, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Bundi, Kota and Jhalawar.

•            These are mature soils with medium to maximum profile development.

•            Color: Reddish to Brownish

•            Annual rainfall: 500 to 900mm

3.           Entisols

•            Entisols lack well developed horizons and have minimum profile development.

•            Districts: Entisols are dominant soil of the state. All districts in western half are covered in some or major part by these soils.

4.           Inceptisols

•            Districts: Along the foothills of the Aravalli in the districts of Sirohi, Pali, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh and in some parts of alluvial plains in Udaipur, Alwar, Sawai Madhopur and Jhalawar.

•            Color: Reddish and brownish.

5.           Vertisols

•            Districts: jhalawar, Kota, Bundi and small part of Sawai Madhopur, Bharatpur, Dungarpur, Chittorgarh and Banswara.

•            They are clayey soils that develop deep wide cracks when dry and become sticky & plastic when wet.

•            They are compact and very slowly permeable in the lower layer.

Conservation of Soils of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the state with highest area under desertification (land degradation) with respect to country’s total geographical area (TGA).

The state has 62.90% of the TGA under desertification/ land degradation for the period of 2011-13.

Soil Degradation

•            Soil degradation is the decline in soil quality caused by its improper use, usually for `agricultural, pastoral, industrial or urban purposes.

•            Soil degradation is a serious global environmental problem and may be exacerbated by climate change.

  • It encompasses physical (soil erosion), chemical (salinity and alkalinity, pollution) and biological deterioration (pollution and deterioration of vegetal cover).

Soil Erosion

•            Soil erosion is the removal of top soil by agents like wind and water.

•            Top soil has most of the nutrients necessary for a plant’s growth. With depth, the fertility of the soil decreases. Thus, erosion results in reduction of fertility of the soil by washing away the fertile top layer.


•            UNCCD defines desertification as ‘land-degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities’.

•            Loss of soil cover, mainly due to rainfall and surface runoff, is one of the biggest reasons for desertification.

Problems of Soils in Rajasthan

The degree of degradation and its severity are influenced by special variability and its niche with the surrounding. The terrain factors like slope, aspect, topographic position are found to be dominant factor while intensity and distribution of rainfall are climatic factors, determining the extent and severity of degradation.

Wind Erosion & Shifting Sand Dunes:

•            Wind Erosion is the most significant cause of land degradation/desertification in Rajasthan.

•            The wind erosion is playing a prominent role, in the western flank of the state and is found active with full force in the core of desert, causing sand blasting, sand drifting, which results active dunes and inter-duneal plains.

Water Erosion

•            Severity of water erosion is found at the peak in central highland, including Aravalli landscape and Bundelkhand upland.

•            This causes loss of top soil through sheet and rill erosion.

•            It also causes terrain deformation through gully and ravine land. Example: Ravine Lands along the Chambal River & its tributaries.

Water Logging:

•            With the introduction of canal irrigation system water table of the some areas is rising at an average rate of about 0.8 m per year.

•            As a result of this, large areas have become water-logged and the area is increasing every year. It is a serious problem particularly in deep black soils.

Sodicity of Soil:

•            Sodality of the soil and high residual sodium carbonate content of irrigation water are the main problems.

Salinity & Alkalinity:

•            The Salinity & Alkalinity is found maximum in the Aravalli and Bundelkhand alluvial plains where the quality of ground water and poor management practices about the secondary salinization.

•            Salinity is due to high permanent water table.

Steps for Soil Conservation in Rajasthan:

Adequate drainage:

•            The solution for salinity & Alkalinity of soil is to provide of soil is to provide adequate drainage.

Use of Gypsum:

•            Use of gypsum which is abundantly and cheaply available in Rajasthan, is economical and long term solution to the problem of Alkalinity.


•            Large scale planting of saplings which act as wind breaks & also prevents soil erosion through water.

Shelter Belts:

•            In dry regions rows of trees are planted to check wind movement to protect soil cover.

Contour Barriers:

•            Stone, gross, soils are used to build barrier along contours. Trenches are made in front of the boomers to collect water.

Grass Development:

•            Plantation of trees & grasses on marginal and sub marginal land.

Wind strip cropping:

•            Grass and crop strip at right angle to wind direction.

Stubble Mulching:

•            Crop stubbles are left in the field and next crop planted with minimum tillage.

Contour Bonding:

•            Ravine land can be made cultivable by leveling followed by contour bonding

•            The medium and deep gullies can also be converted into productive wood lands.

Proper Drainage System in canal Project Area:

•            The problem of water logging can be checked and overcome by introducing proper drainage system in the canal project area.

Dry Farming:

•            Dry Farming is a method of conserving soil moisture preventing soil erosion.

Rock Dams:

•            Rock Dam is built to slow down its flow of water.


•            A layer of organic matter is made on soil. It helps to retain soil moisture.


•            Different crops are grown in alternative rows to protect the soil form rain wash

Terrace Farming:

•            Broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops.

•            They reduce surface run off & soil erosion.

Contour Plugging:

•            Plugging parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

Public Private Partnership

Public Private Partnership (PPP)

•            India has systematically rolled out a Public Private Partnership (PPP) program for the delivery of high- priority public utilities and infrastructure.

•            With close to 1300 PPP projects in various stages of implementation, according to the World Bank, India is one of the leading countries in terms of readiness for PPPs.

What is Public Private Partnership (PPP)?

•            Public Private Partnership (PPP) model involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project.

Various advantages associated with PPP approach:

•            The emergence of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) is seen as a sustainable financing and institutional mechanism with the potential of bridging the infrastructure gap.

•            Apart from enabling private investment flows, PPPs also deliver efficiency gains and enhanced impact of the investments.

•            The efficient use of resources, availability of modern technology, better project design and implementation, and improved operations combine to deliver efficiency and effectiveness gains which are not readily produced in a public sector project.

•            PPP projects also lead to faster implementation, reduced lifecycle costs, and optimal risk allocation.

•            Private management also increases accountability and incentivizes performance and maintenance of required service standards.

•            Finally, PPPs result in improved delivery of public services and promote public sector reforms.

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What is Rajasthan’s PPP model?

•            The Rajasthan’s PPP model does not restrict private players to merely building roads and bridges, but allows them to take control of the services and social sectors.

•            It pushes for privatization in even those government sectors hitherto forbidden to the private sector.

•            Rajasthan Government has broken the monopoly of the government sector in transportation, power distribution, public distribution schemes (PDS), health and education.

•            Hence, in Rajasthan, PPP is being used both for building infrastructure as well as for improving the provision of services.

Status Summary of PPP Projects in Rajasthan:

•            Total 183 projects costing 16,953.24 crore completed upto December,2019 in the state.

•            Total 33 projects costing 2,609.38 crore are in progress.

•            Another 94 projects involving an investment of 24,756.05 crore are in the pipeline

Policy Initiatives to Promote Private Participation

•            Some of the key initiatives of the State Government aimed at creating an enabling environment for promoting private participation are outlined below:

Council for Infrastructure Development (CID)

•            State Government has set up a Council for Infrastructure Development (CID) under the chairpersonship of the Chief Minister with a view to decide on the policy issues pertaining to infrastructural projects, specifically in relation to projects being developed on Public Private Partnership (PPP).

•            The CID decides on various policy issues and grants approval of PPP projects, if project cost is higher than 500 crore.

Empowered Committee for Infrastructure Development (ECID)

•            To facilitate the functioning of the CID, the State Government has also constituted an Empowered Committee for Infrastructure Development (ECID) under the chairpersonship of the Chief Secretary.

•            The ECID formulates, reviews and recommends policy papers and proposals for submission to the CID and it also monitors and follow-up on implementation of the decisions taken by the CID.

•            Planning Department serves as the secretariat of the CID and ECID.

PPP Cell

•            The PPP Cell created under the Planning Department in the year 2007-08, is the State Nodal agency to coordinate efforts of the State Government regarding projects entailing Public- Private Participation.

•            It serves as the repository of all the information relating to PPP in the State including best practices, guidelines, schemes etc.

•            This Cell serves as the secretariat of the ECID and being strengthened to support departments in project development, appraisal and evaluation.

•            This Cell provides all hand-holding support for development of these projects.

State Level Empowered Committee (SLEC)

•            A State Level Empowered Committee (SLEC) has also been set up under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary for the projects under Swiss Challenge Method in accordance with the Rajasthan transparency in Public Procurement (Amendment) Rules, 2015.

•            The SLEC considers, examines and accords approval of the project proposals (Both PPP and Non-PPP) received under the Swiss Challenge Method of procurement. The Administrative Department of this Empowered Committee is the Planning Department.

Implementing Agencies

•            The respective administrative departments / agencies to identify, develop and execute the PPP projects.

•            Respective administrative departments have nominated one of the officers as nodal officer for PPP projects.

PDCoR Limited

•            PDCoR is a company developed as a joint venture between the Government of Rajasthan and Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS) in 1998 to facilitate private sector investment in the infrastructure sector in Rajasthan.

•            It works in the sectors of urban renewal, rural development, social sectors, tourism, industries, urban transport and renewable energy.


•            Road Infrastructure Development Company of Rajasthan Ltd (RIDCoR) is a company developed as a joint venture between the Government of Rajasthan and Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS) in 2004 to implement Mega Highways Project in the State.

Policy Framework for PPP in Rajasthan:

Road Development Policy, 2013

•            Rajasthan was the first State to formulate a policy for Build-operate-transfer (BoT) projects in 1994 to facilitate the entry of private sector in the roads sector under the State Road Development Policy, 1994.

•            Recognizing importance of private sector, PPP model of development is further given impetus to overcome the resource gap and to bring out improved all round efficiency.

•            Consequently, the State has been in the forefront of successfully implementing a number of road sector projects in the recent past.

Rajasthan State Road Development Fund Act, 2004 (Act No.13 of 2004)

•            The State Road Development Fund Act, 2004 was enacted. Under the Act, a non-lapsable State Road Development Fund (SRF) was created through levy of 1.00 cess on petrol/diesel.

•            The levy is revised from time to time. The funds collected under the Act are being utilized for development and maintenance of State Roads.

Rajasthan State Highways Act, 2014

•            Rajasthan State Legislature has enacted the comprehensive Act assent of the Governor of which was received on 29h April 2015 and became Act on 1st May 2015.

•            The act facilitates the declaration, development, operation, safety and regulation of highways and the use of land appurtenant thereto, acquisition of land for highways and other roads, constitution of the Rajasthan State Highways Authority, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Funds for PPP projects in Rajasthan:


•            A new fund titled “Rajasthan Infrastructure Project Development Fund” (RIPDF) has been created for supporting the development of credible and bankable PPP projects that can be offered to the private sector and the other infrastructure projects wherein Government of Rajasthan reimburses project development expenses.


•            For projects that not financially viable, Rajasthan government has incorporated Viability Gap Funding (VGF) mechanism. Viability Gap Support in the form of capital subsidy, interest free or concessional loan, land free of cost or at concessional price etc.


•            The Government of India provides financial assistance for the Project under the India Infrastructure Project Development Fund (IIPDF) for Project Development entailing project structuring, financial modelling, bid documents preparation, bidding process assistance, etc.

Capacity Building for PPP in Rajasthan

•            The National PPP Capacity Building Programme (NPCBP) launched by Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India in the year 2010 with support of KfW (German Development Bank) was rolled out successfully in the State of Rajasthan.

•            The aim was to enhance capacities of senior and middle level officers of Administrative Departments/ Implementing Agencies concerned at large to enable them in conceptualizing, structuring, awarding, implementing and monitoring of the PPP projects.

•            To mark the culmination of the NPCBP, the PPP Cell of Planning Department, Government of Rajasthan was awarded by Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India in March, 2014 for commendable contribution in the implementation of the programme.

•            The PPP Cell of Planning Department has now been providing resource support on PPPs to all the national and state training institutes, available in the state.

Sectors where PPP model has been introduced:

Roads Sector:

•            Rajasthan was the first State to formulate a policy for Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects in 1994. The Rajasthan Road Development Act, 2002, encourages private sector participation in the construction of financially viable bridges, bypasses, rail over-bridges, tunnels, etc.

•            For Road Projects that are not financially viable, Rajasthan has introduced mechanism like BOT with Viability Gap Fund (VGF). Development of the State highways and major district roads have been taken up using this model.

•            Under the State Road Development Fund Act, 2004, a non-lapsable State Road Fund (SRF) was created through levy of 50 paisa Cess on petrol / diesel. SRF is being leveraged to take up large / mega State Highways projects.

Urban Infrastructure:

•            PPP projects in the Urban Infrastructure sector are being intensively pursued include the Metro Rail Project in Jaipur, Exhibition-cum-Convention Centre in Sitapura, Jaipur and Ring Road Project in Jaipur.


•            Education: Government of Rajasthan intends to engage private sector participants to design, finance, establish, operate, manage and maintain 165 secondary schools (from 6th to 12th) for a period of 30 years.

•            Medical Education: Metro Manas Arogya Sadan at Mansarovar Jaipur is running on PPP mode.


•            Haemodialysis service is running on PPP mode at 33 District Hospitals in Rajasthan.

•            IVF centers are running on PPP mode at 8 District Hospital Baran, Sikar, Pali, Rampura (Kota), Bikaner, Sawai madhopur, Kanwantia Hospital Jaipur and Beawar (Ajmer).

•            Presently 73 PHC running under PPP mode.

•            CT scan are running on PPP mode at 30 district hospitals.

•            MRI machines are working on PPP mode at 4 district hospitals (Kanwatiya- Jaipur, Alwar, Bhilwara, Sikar).

Tourism Sector:

•            Projects under PPP include Jal Mahal Integrated Tourism Project, Restoration and Conservation of Tijara Fort, Alwar.

Water Sector:

•            Project development and structuring for a few water supply projects on PPP format have already been initiated.

•            These include four projects, two of water supply in Ajmer and Udaipur towns, and two pilot projects for water supply in Jaipur (Mansarovar) and Kota with focus on reduction in non-revenue water.

Power Sector:

•            PPP model has been extend to power distribution in Kota and Bharatpur. Kolkata-based CESC has been given the rights.

•            Lignite based Power Plant in Bhadresh (Barmer) (Total 8 Units) is being implemented on Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) basis with an investment of Rs. 5,000 crore.

IT Sector:

•            To modernize communication infrastructure Rajasthan Government is implementing RajSWAN project on BOOT basis.

•            Common Service Centers Project. A total of 6,626 kiosks are being set up across the State under the project.

•            These CSCs will be managed by Village Level Women Enterprises (VLWEs) through service center agencies.

Public Distribution System

•            Annapurna Bhandar Yojana has been formulated for providing better quality, multi brand Consumer goods at fair and competitive prices to the general public through Fair Price Shops in the State of Rajasthan under Public Private Partnership (PPP) model. A total of 6,715 Annapurna Bhandars have been opened in the State.

Special Economic Zones (SEZ)


•            India was one of the first countries in Asia to recognise the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone model in promoting exports, with Asia’s first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965.

•            This was followed by Santacruz electronics EPZ, Mumbai (1973) and Chennai EPZ (1984).

•            To instil confidence in investors and to stabilise SEZ policy regime, the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005, which came into effect on 10th February, 2006.

•            Rajasthan’s proximity to the Delhi International Airport and ports of the western coast, makes it an ideal location for export-oriented industrial development on a large scale.

•            40% of the Delhi-Mumbai freight corridor is passing through Rajasthan throwing up enormous possibilities for development of industrial belts such as special economic zones along the corridor.

Definition of Special Economic Zone (SEZ)

•            According to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, “Special Economic Zone (SEZs) is a specifically Delineated duty free enclave and is a deemed foreign territory for the purpose of trade operations, duties and tariffs.”

There are three categories of SEZs in India are:

•            Central Government SEZs,

•            State Govt / Private SEZs, established prior to SEZs act and

•            SEZs notified under SEZs Act 2005

Objectives of SEZ:

The objectives of SEZs can be explained as

•            (i)          Generation of additional economic activity

•            (ii)         Promotion of exports of goods and services

•            (iii)        Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources

•            (iv)        Creation of employment opportunities;

•            (v)         Development of Infrastructure facilities.

Contribution of SEZ:

•            SEZs help to provide employment to skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour at large scale.

•            SEZs contribute significantly to exports.

Special Economic Zones in Rajasthan

•            Rajasthan came up with an SEZ policy and Act in 2003 with major focus on Gems & Jewellery and handicrafts.

•            Consequently, a SEZ was setup in Jaipur for Gems & Jewellery and one in Jodhpur for handicrafts.

•            After 2005, the new SEZ’s came up under the Government of India Special Economic Zones Act 2005. In 2015, the Rajasthan Assembly passed the new Rajasthan Special Economic Zones Act, 2015 with to provide for the establishment, maintenance, management and administration of Special Economic Zones in the State.

•            The Government of Rajasthan is promoting the development of several SEZs across the state for sectors such as gems and jewellery, handicrafts, IT, electronics, automotive / auto components and textiles.

Six SEZs have already notified. These are:

•            1. Mahindra World City (Jaipur) Ltd., Jaipur

•            2. Somani Worsted Ltd., Khushkeda, Bhiwadi, Alwar

•            3. Genpact Infrastructure (Jaipur) Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur

•            4. Vatika Jaipur SEZ Developers Ltd., Jaipur

•            5. Mansarovar Industrial Development Corporation, Jodhpur

•            6. RNB Infrastructure Private Limited, Bikaner

Major Benefits offered by SEZ’s in Rajasthan

•            Land conversion @Rs.l00/- to developers in rural areas.

•            100% exemption on stamp duty to developers and to units in RIICO SEZs.

•            50% exemption on electricity duty for seven years.

•            100% exemption from work contract tax to units and developers for seven years.

•            100% exemption from entry tax on capital goods brought into local areas by the unit required for use as capital goods for setting up industry in SEZs.

•            100% exemption from luxury tax for seven years.

•            50% exemption from entertainment tax for seven years.