Odisha Judicial Service Civil Judge – English – 2014
Odisha Judicial Service Civil Judge – English – 2014 Question Paper
Total marks – 100 Duration – 1 hour 30 minutes
1. Translate the following into English:
Click here for the question
2. Translate the following into Odia:
Peace is the harmonisation of men in their differences ; it is giving battle to distrust and prejudice. This is the meaning of international understanding of human reconciliation. The use of force in settling these differences is not only bad morals but a bad policy as well. There is a certain duplicity in human nature which makes us do things even when we recognise them to be wrong. When Pontius Pilate pronounced Jesus innocent and yet handed him over, he did what we all do, say one thing and do another people, who, in their private lives, are honourable and decent, are prepared for the possibility of a nuclear war, which will end in the destruction of civilisation, if not of all life. Brotherhood of man requires the recognition of common purpose and human co-operation. Love must penetrate the hearts and minds of people everywhere. The achievement of stable peace is a longer and more complicated process than the relatively simple one of war-making.
3. Write an essay in about 150 words on any one of the following:
(a) Peer pressure on adolescents
(b) Revisiting the laws on land and labour
(c) Withdrawal of subsidies on essential items in the changed scenario
(d) Legal Profession in the 21st Century
(e) Team building for better output
4. Make a precis of the passage below in about 100 words:
Human rights violations occur when actions by state or non-state actors abuse, ignore, or deny basic human rights including civil, political, cultural, social and economic rights. Furthermore, violations of human rights can occur when any state or non-state actor breaches any part of the UDHR treaty or other international human rights or humanitarian law. In regard to human rights violations of United Nations Laws, Article 39 of the United Nations Charter designates the UN Security Council as the only tribunal that may determine human rights violations.
Human rights abuses are monitored by United Nations Committees, national institutions and governments and by many independent non- governmental organizations, such as Amnesty International, International Federation of Human Rights, Human Rights Watch and World Organisation Against Torture. These organisations collect evidence and documentation of alleged human rights abuses and apply pressure to enforce human rights laws.
The right to life is the essential right of a human being. It is the right not to be killed by another human being. The concept of a right to life is central to debates on the issues of abortion, capital punishment, euthanasia, self defence and war. According to many human rights activists, the death penalty violates this right. The United Nations has called on States retaining the death penalty to establish a moratorium on capital punishment with a view to its abolition. States which do not do so face considerable moral and political pressure.
Wars of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity, including genocide, are breaches of International Humanitarian Law and represent the most serious of human rights violations.
In efforts to eliminate violations of human rights, building awareness and protesting inhumane treatment has often led to calls for action and sometimes improved conditions. The UN Security Council has interceded with Peace Keeping Forces and other States and Treaties (NATO) have intervened in situations to protect human rights.
5. Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it, each in about 25 or 30 words:
Knowledge, as Francis Bacon advised us, is power but for knowledge to win in a western, it usually had to ally itself with force or money.
Of course, cash, culture and violence are not the only sources of power in everyday life and power is neither good nor bad. It is a dimension of virtually all human relationships. It is, in fact, the reciprocal of desire, and since human desires are infinitely varied, anything that can fulfil someone else’s desire is a potential source of power. The drug dealer who can withhold a ‘fix’ has power over the addict. If a politician desires votes, those who can deliver them have power.
Vet among the numberless possibilities, the three sources of power symbolized in the western movie—violence, wealth and knowledge—turn out to be most important. Each takes many different forms in power play. Violence, for example, need not be actual: the threat of its use is often enough to bring compliance. The threat of violence can also lurk behind the law. The term violence in these pages has been used in a figurative, rather than literal, sense to include force as well as physical coercion.
Indeed, not only modern movies but also ancient myths support the view that violence, wealth and knowledge are the ultimate sources of social power. Thus Japanese legend tells of sanshu no jingi — the three sacred objects given to the great sun goddess, Amaterasu-orni- kami—which to this day are still the symbols of imperial power. These are the sword, the jewel, and the mirror.
The power implications of sword and jewel are clear enough; the mirror’s, a bit less so. But the mirror, in which Amaterasu-omi-karni saw her own visage or gained knowledge of herself – also reflects power. It came to symbolize her divinity, but it is not unreasonable to regard it as a symbol of imagination, consciousness and knowledge as well.
Furthermore, the sword or muscle, the jewel or money and the mirror or mind together form a single interactive system. Under certain conditions each can be converted into the other. A gun can get you money or can force secret information from the lips of a victim. Money can buy you information or a gun. Information can be used to increase either the money available to you or to multiply the force at your command.
What’s more, all three can be used at almost every level of social life, from the intimacy of home to the political arena. In the private sphere, a parent can slap a child (use force), cut an allowance or bribe with a dollar (use money or its equivalent), or – most effective of all – mould a child’s values so the child wishes to obey. In politics, a government can imprison or torture a dissident, financially punish its critics and pay off its supporters, and it can manipulate truth to create consent
Like machine tools (which can create more machines), force, wealth or knowledge, properly used, can give one command over many additional, more varied sources of power. Thus, whatever other tools of power may be exploited by a ruling elite or by individuals in their private relationships, force, wealth and knowledge are the ultimate levers. They form the power triad.
It Is true that not all shifts .or transfers of power are a result of the use of these tools. Power changes hands as a result of many natural events. The Black Death that swept Europe in the 14th Century sent the powerful to the grave along with the powerless, creating many vacancies among the elite in the surviving communities.
(a) In Bacon’s observation ‘knowledge is power1 fully accepted by the author ? Give reasons for your answer.
(b) What does the author mean by the power triad ?
(c) What are the different sources of power as presented in western movies and ancient myths ? Does the Japanese legend conform to the same?