CLAT 2021 Question Paper

Download Past Year Papers of CLAT

We have compiled complete CLAT papers (2008 to 2022 ) with solutions, into one neat, beautifully formatted bundle for you to download, view offline or print. You can download it by clicking below

Download CLAT Question Papers and Solutions

Read an extract from A Scandal in Bohemia by Arthur Conan Doyle:

“I rang the door-bell and was shown up to the chamber which had formerly been in part my own.

With hardly a word spoken, Sherlock Holmes waved me to an armchair. Then he stood before the fire and looked me over in his singular introspective fashion.

“Watson, you did not tell me that you intended to go into harness. ”

“Then, how do you know? ”

“I see it, I deduce it. How do I know that you have been getting yourself very wet lately, and that you have a most clumsy and careless servant girl? ”

“My dear Holmes, ” said I, “this is too much. It is true that I had a country walk on Thursday and came home in a dreadful mess, but as I have changed my clothes, I can’t imagine how you deduce it. As to Mary Jane, she is incorrigible, but there, again, I fail to see how you work it out. ”

“It is simplicity itself, ” said he; “my eyes tell me that on the inside of your left shoe, just where the firelight strikes it, the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts. Obviously, they have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scared round the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it. Hence, you see, my double deduction that you had been out in vile weather, and that you had a particularly malignant boot-slitting specimen of the London slavey. ”

In fiction, detectives like Holmes are usually portrayed as people with exceptionally brilliant minds. They possess the rare skill to see and analyze what ordinary people can’t. They have incredible abilities to infer, deduce, induce and conclude.

Then, there is G.K. Chesterton’s fictional catholic priest, Father Brown who relies on his extraordinary power of sympathy and empathy that enable him to imagine and feel as criminals do. He explains, “I had thought out exactly how a thing like that could be done, and in what style or state of mind a man could really do it. And when I was quite sure that I felt exactly like the murderer myself, of course I knew who he was.”

Sherlock finds the criminal by starting from the outside. He relies on science, experimental methods and deduction. On the contrary, Father Brown uses varied psychological experiences learned from those who make confessions of crime to him. He relies on introspection, intuition and empathy.

There is yet another set of detectives like those created by writers like Agatha Christie. Her Belgian detective, Hercule Poirot is a story-teller who draws information from the stories that others tell. He patiently listens to numerous accounts of what happened, where it happened and how it happened. He listens for credibility and ambiguity; he identifies why and how the pieces of the jig-saws don’t fit together. Ultimately, he uncovers the truth.

  1. From the passage, it can be inferred that

(A)         Watson is Holmes’ mentor.

(B)         Earlier, Watson used to live with Holmes.

(C)         Watson is a detective.

(D)         Watson shares all his personal matters with Holmes.


  1. It is evident that for solving cases, Father Brown relies largely on

(A)         His own sympathetic and empathic thought process about criminals.

(B)         A sympathetic approach towards various people’s opinion on the case to be solved.

(C)         A deductive analysis of the crime and his ability to sympathize.

(D)         All the above.


  1. For the three detectives mentioned in the passage, which one of these would be non¬essential for solving criminal cases?

(A)         Forgiving nature

(B)         Sensitivity

(C)         Critical thinking

(D)         Patience


  1. In order to solve cases, Poirot uses the art of the narratives that he has been told.

(A)         Building a fantasy based on

(B)         Empathizing with all the characters in

(C)         Creating new plots for

(D)         Detecting and analyzing the missing links in CORRECT OPTION: D

  1. The word incorrigible is the antonym of

(A)         Habitual

(B)         Unperformable

(C)         Repentant

(D)         Incurable


Since long, we have witnessed unimaginable levels of success and failure of various projects, businesses, scientific missions and even wars. From such triumphs and defeats emerges the much debatable thought: Is planning and strategy more important than execution?

Some project leaders and their teams are of the view that planning leads to clarity of objectives; it helps to set the timeline and the budget. Consequently, when the planning is haphazard and unstructured, the very aims of the projects become hazy. This further leads to unprecedented budget collapses and poor time-management. In some cases, teams have worked relentlessly to complete assignments, but poor planning has invariably led to customer dissatisfaction and at times a complete collapse of the entire project. In the words of Benjamin Franklin, “Failing to plan is planning to fail. ”

Numerous entrepreneurs have the faith that strategies help to enhance not only speed and quality of production, but also consumer satisfaction. If there are no strategies to tackle unplanned events or unexpected interruptions, there is a possibility of entire projects coming to a grinding halt.

Some of the world’s best airports, bridges and astronomical missions are the result of careful planning and excellent strategies. However, there are some architects, artists and entrepreneurs who prefer to dive straight from the board of ideas into the pool of execution. They believe that suitable strategies are best shaped during the process of execution; great plans and strategies can fail while encountering unexpected situations.

Steve Jobs says, “ To me, ideas are worth nothing unless executed They are _ just a multiplier. Execution is worth millions. ”

According to Bill Gates, unhappy customers are the greatest source of learning. Fickle-minded consumers and wavering market trends can mar projects that stand on fixed plans. It is the need-based, flexible and innovative strategies that help to withstand the impact of these vacillating desires and trends.

After rigorous planning and testing a new recipe on two lakh consumers, in 1985, the company Coke brought out the New Coke. Much to the company’s dismay, the product did not take off as expected and the financial loss was enormous. The company realized that during the process of data collection, it had not considered the product-loyalty and old-fashioned habits of the consumers.

Hence, a balance of pragmatic planning, effective strategies and efficient execution is likely to ensure the accomplishment of tasks at each stage of a project. Successful execution is not an easy journey. The road is winding and bumpy. It may require tweaking or at times abandoning the original plan and re-designing it.

Often, we turn to nature for inspiration. Think plans and strategies are the seed; execution is the nourishment; consumer is the capricious weather.

  1. The passage can be best termed as

(A)         Expository

(B)         Descriptive

(C)         Abstract

(D)         Narrative CORRECT OPTION: A

  1. The author’s main purpose is to

(A)         Suggest that people succeed only when they have great strategies.

(B)         Highlight the fact that execution is as indispensable as planning and strategy.

(C)         Illustrate the impact of poor planning and weak strategy.

(D)         Highlight the hurdles that come in the way of execution.


  1. From the failure of New Coke, the company learnt that

(A)         Tested and tried strategies are essential for success.

(B)         Surveys and data calibration are a sheer waste of time.

(C)         Consumers change brand preferences too frequently.

(D)         Changes in consumers’ habits should not be taken for granted.


  1. For the accomplishment of a project, Steve Jobs

(A)         Propagates an approach that is similar to Benjamin Franklin’s.

(B)         Suggests an approach that is different from Benjamin Franklin’s.

(C)         Believes that the main control is in the hands of consumers.

(D)         None of the above.


  1. The in ‘consumer is the capricious weather’ refers to the      demands of the


(A)         Onomatopoeia stagnant

(B)         Simile   unpredictable

(C)         Metaphor          wavering

(D)         Anaphora          oscillating


Since the worldwide inoculation process is going strong, vaccine diplomacy has become a hot topic. In their quest for ensuring vaccine security, a report by The New York Times, based on the data on vaccine contracts compiled by Duke University, shows that the advance purchase contracts made by some advanced countries for potential vaccines would vaccinate their population many times: the European Union, two times, the United States and the United Kingdom, four times, and Canada, six times. The expectation that an early vaccination will bring back normalcy and a required push to economic growth fuelled many advanced countries to engage in vaccine battles. The arguments of public good and global cooperation have gone out of the window now. While advanced countries have turned their back on the need of poor countries to access COVID-19 vaccines, India has displayed empathy to their needs. India has taken a position that a significant percentage of the approved doses will be permitted for exports. While its exports to neighbouring countries will be under grant mode, initial shipment of vaccines to least developed countries will be free of cost. And, shipments of vaccines from India have already started reaching different parts of the developing world. While India is in its first phase of vaccination to cover health-care workers, exports from India are helping other countries also in initiating phase one of their vaccination programme, a gesture well appreciated globally. In a democracy, one can expect the backlash of sending vaccines abroad without vaccinating its population. Nevertheless, India’s approach only reinforces the need of having coordinated global efforts in bringing COVID-19 under control. This response manifests India’s unstinted commitment to global development and has consolidated its name as the world’s pharmacy. The attitude of India towards vaccinating the populations in the poorer countries has generated discussion in the richer countries about the necessity for more proactive measures to roll out vaccines to the developing nations.

  1. Which of the following best describes the purpose of this passage?

(A)         To encourage vaccine nationalism, and discourage global cooperation.

(B)         To discourage vaccine nationalism, and encourage global cooperation.

(C)         To encourage poor countries and discourage advanced countries.

(D)         To encourage India to provide vaccines to poor nations.


  1. The term ‘inoculation process’ as used in the passage means

(A)         Production and distribution of vaccines.

(B)         Global struggle for vaccines.

(C)         Pharmaceutical production of vaccines.

(D)         Artificially inducing immunity.


  1. Advanced purchase contracts of vaccines by developed countries are premised on hopes that

(A)         Vaccination will restore normalcy and thrust economic recovery.

(B)         Vaccination will bring back powers to nations.

(C)         Vaccination will promote global well-being and growth.

(D)         Vaccination will protect the health of the world population.


  1. The author cautions that India’s approach in vaccine distribution may have negative repercussions among

(A)         People from advanced countries.

(B)         People from poor countries.

(C)         People from developing countries.

(D)         People from India.


  1. Among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the third goal reads, “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. Which of the following sentences from the passage reflects the reversal of this SDG?

(A)         The arguments of public good and global cooperation have gone out of the window now.

(B)         Advanced countries have turned their back on the need of poor countries to access COVID-19 vaccines.

(C)         The advance purchase contracts made by some advanced countries for potential vaccines would vaccinate their population many times.

(D)         All the above.


Following the transition to democracy, with the inauguration of Nelson Mandela as president in I994, South Africa was faced with the task of dealing with its past, as well as undertaking some action to deal with structural social injustice. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), heralded as the most ambitious and organised attempt to deal with crimes of a past regime through a concept of truth, came into force on 19th July I995 in South Africa. Emerging as a political strategy to acknowledge past suffering whilst promoting a future based on the concerns of social justice, the rule of law and reconciliation, the Commission has struggled to fulfil its objectives. Although the TRC incorporated these broader concerns into the mandate of its three sub-committees, they were disregarded in practice. These sub-committees, which reflected concerns for ‘human rights violations’, ‘amnesty’ and ‘reparation and rehabilitation’, were not ‘coupled with some form of social transformation’. The public transition from apartheid, established through a negotiated settlement rather than a revolutionary process, framed the Commission’s powers. Shaped by the historical context of this particular transition, the TRC was careful not to ‘rock the structural boat’. Rather than pursuing truth and justice, as an integrated feature of social transformation, the Commissioners and, to a greater extent, the government of South Africa, maintained an agenda that avoided a challenge to the status quo. A focus on restorative justice was taken by the Commission with an emphasis placed on mechanisms to restore victims and survivors, through reparations policy, state-led acknowledgement of suffering, and a condemnation, together with the transformation, of the system that implemented such widespread forms of abuse. The priority of changing the apartheid conditions of gross inequality and oppression provided a backdrop to the approval of the TRC by those who had suffered. More difficult to accept was the provision of amnesty to those who had undertaken violations of human rights. The process placed amnesty of violations as a carrot to perpetrators in exchange for a full story, with the stick of prosecutions for those who did not come forward.

  1. ‘The status quo’ as used in the passage means

(A)         Previously popular opinions.

(B)         Already existing conditions.

(C)         Strategies of government.

(D)         Following a set agenda.


  1. Which of the following best describes the tone of the author?

(A)         Optimistic

(B)         Threatening

(C)         Compassionate

(D)         Critical


  1. Which of the following is not the broader concern of Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)?

(A)         To deal with crimes of a past regime through a concept of truth.

(B)         To acknowledge past suffering.

(C)         To emerge as a political strategy for reconciliation of rule of law.

(D)         To promote a future based on the concerns of social justice.


  1. Which of the following statements is least likely to be inferred from the passage?

(A)         The TRC ignored some of the broad concerns.

(B)         The sub-committees of TRC lacked an agenda of social transformation.

(C)         The TRC made earnest efforts to protect human rights.

(D)         The TRC lacked the desire and strength to challenge the prevailing conditions. CORRECT OPTION: C

  1. What does ‘amnesty’ mean in the context of the passage?

(A)         Severe punishment

(B)         Bring legal action

(C)         Arrest warrants

(D)         Official pardon


In the domain of education, the current pandemic has made three things clear. It has proved beyond any doubt that we need schools. Irrespective ofwhich country one talks about, students and parents want schools to open and function in full glory, with appropriate precautions. Secondly, it has shown that technology may prove to be useful in education if it is employed thoughtfully. Random surfing of the Internet may lead to a collection of pieces of information that do not add up to any meaning. As Noam Chomsky says, “You cannot pursue any kind of inquiry without a relatively clear framework that is directing your search and helping you choose what is significant and what is not.” Moreover, there cannot be any hegemonic techno¬managerial solutions to the linguistic and cultural heterogeneity of students; technology must help us to respect individual, peer group and community needs and aspirations. Thirdly, a convergence of the efforts of the public, civil society and private enterprise will have to take place if we wish technology to meaningfully mediate between school and home, particularly among underprivileged groups.

The concept, structure and functioning of a school/college should not be trivialised in any way. This institution has survived since ancient times in spite of proposals for “de-schooling” of various kinds. It is true that schools to a great extent perpetuate the status quo and, as Ivan Illich observed, encourage “consumerism” and “obedience to authority”; but it is also true that those who produced some of the most revolutionary moments in history, including quantum jumps in knowledge, also went to school. The kind of web of learners Illich imagines may in fact have its roots in schools. There are also people who trivialise schools for the kind of investments they demand in terms of space, buildings, teachers, libraries and labs and other infrastructure.

One thing you never forget is the school you went to, friends you made there and the kind of teachers who taught you; the kind of teachers you loved, the kind you mocked at with friends. You recollect nostalgically the sports and other co-curricular activities you took part in. Some of you may still have preserved your school blazer, trophies and photographs with a sense of joy. It is important to see school holistically; it is not a set of atomic items of rooms, library, assembly halls, canteen and playgrounds; it is all of these but in symbiotic relationship with each other, the contours of which are often far too obvious and often simply mysterious.

  1. Which one of the following is the author trying to suggest by quoting Noam Chomsky?

(A)         Technology shall be used in purposively structured manner in education.

(B)         A relatively clear framework pursues any kind of inquiry.

(C)         Technology helps to choose what is significant and reject what is not significant.

(D)         Technology must help us to respect individual, peer group and community needs and aspirations.


  1. Which of the following is not a premise of author’s argument in favour of need for schools and colleges?

(A)         Schools and colleges provide opportunities for socialization.

(B)         The institution of schools and colleges has shown perseverance.

(C)         The current pandemic has proved that students and parents want schools and colleges.

(D)         Random surfing of the internet may lead to a collection of meaningless information. CORRECT OPTION: D

  1. The expression ‘linguistic and cultural heterogeneity’ as used in the passage means

(A)         Linguistic and cultural unity.

(B)         Linguistic and cultural unity in diversity.

(C)         Linguistic and cultural diversity.

(D)         Linguistic and cultural identity.


  1. Which of the following is not the learning outcome from pandemic?

(A)         Parents and students from around the world need schools.

(B)         Technology is undoubtedly and absolutely useful in education.

(C)         Technology may be used meaningfully to mediate between schools and home among underprivileged groups.

(D)         None of the above.


  1. The expression ‘symbiotic relationship’ as used in the passage means

(A)         Mutually inclusive relationship.

(B)         Mutually exclusive relationship.

(C)         Mutually beneficial relationship.

(D)         Both (B) and (C).


Download Complete Past Year Papers of CLAT

We have compiled complete CLAT papers (2008 - 2022) with solutions into one neat, beautifully formatted bundle for you to download, view offline or print. You can download it by clicking below

Download CLAT Question Papers and Solutions