AILET 2020 Question Paper

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SET – I (2020)


Directions (Q. 1 – Q. 5): Each set of questions in this section is based on the passage. The questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question.

However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the questions.

In order to understand the development of Gangetic Valley plains, scholars have traditionally relied primarily on evidence from historical documents. However, such documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts of Northern India prior to the fifteenth century, and many of the relevant documents from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries focus selectively on matters relating to cultural or commercial interests.

Studies of fossilized pollens preserved in peats and lake muds provide an additional means of investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of changes in vegetation resulting from both human activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds and quantities of minute pollens that become trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollens and when they were deposited, and in many cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct the documentary record.

For example, analysis of samples from a bay in Jammu has revealed significant patterns of cereal-grain pollens beginning by about fourth century. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part of Jammu makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult. Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to any significant extent until the introduction of the wooden plough to India in the seventh century. Because cereal cultivation would have required tiling of the soil, the pollens evidence indicates that these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled before the introduction of the new plough.

Another example concerns flax cultivation in Jammu, one of the great linen-producing areas of India during the sixteenth century. Some aspects of linen production in Jammu are well documented, but the documentary record tells little about the cultivation of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that area. The record of sixteenth-century linen production in Jammu, together with the knowledge that flax cultivation had been established in India centuries before that time, led some historians to surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Jammu before the sixteenth century. Bu. pollens analyses indicate that this is not the case; flax pollens were found only in deposits laid down since the sixteenth century.

It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative history of the landscape. For example, pollen analysis cannot identify the species, but only the genus or family, of some plants. Among these is turmeric, a cultivated plant of medicinal importance in India. Turmeric belongs to a plant family that also comprises various native weeds, including Brahma Thandu. If Turmeric pollen were present in a deposit it would be indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native species.

  1. The phrase “documentary record” (para 2 and 4) primarily refers to –

(A)      articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period.

(B)      government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recoded conditions and events of that time.

(C)      documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen.

(D)     the kinds and qualities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds.

  1. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?

(A)      In certain parts of Jammu, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.

(B)      Cereal grain cultivation began in Jammu around fourth century.

(C)      In certain parts of India, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the wooden plough.

(D)     Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.

  1. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Gangetic Valley plains, at least some historians believed which one of the following?

(A)      Turmeric was not used as a medicinal plant in India until after the sixteenth century.

(B)      Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in India until at least the seventh century.

(C)      The history of the Gangetic Valley plains during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was well documented.

(D)     The beginning of flax cultivation in Jammu may well have occurred before the sixteenth century.

  1. Which of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A)      The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view.

(B)      The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.

(C)      The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.

(D)     The final paragraph desciibes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.

  1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A)      While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, it’s applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.

(B)      Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Gangetic Valley plains.

(C)      Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and turmeric had a significant impact on the Gangetic Valley plains.

(D)     Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.

Directions (Q. 6 – Q. 8): In each of the following questions, a word is highlighted. Choose the word which is a synonym of the highlighted word.

  1. The systematic vilification of facts and expertise, the violent abnegation of diverse thought, the constant blasts of paranoia-stoking crime reports and patriotic sound bites on an inescapable news network—could this be more now?

(A) indulgence

(B) denial

(C) acceptance

(D) adoption

  1. Her 2014 autobiography, A Fighting Chance, and recent stump speeches are festooned in pep club spirit and folksy blandishments, cloying bits of business that have attached themselves to her life story.

(A) cajolery

(B) roughness

(C) criticism

(D) bully

  1. Were other international trade negotiations to be put back because of the virus — for example those being conducted between London and Washington — Britain’s government could start to look obdurate about the Brexit talks.

(A)      sensitive

(B) illusive

(C)      flexible

(D) callous

Directions (Q. 9 – Q. 11): Complete the following sentences with an appropriate irregular verb and one of these phases.

          (i)                  (ii)

  1. Make a.        From the jeweler
  2. Choose b.        on the label
  3. Carry  c.        To the players
  4. Give d.        To represent India
  5. Print At today’s meeting
  6. Damage f.         On the boulevard
  7. Take   g-        In the storm
  1. The road repairs …….. might delay traffic.

(A) I-b

(B) VII – c

(C) VI – g

(D) III – f

  1. All the bijouterie……have now been recovered.

(A)      VII – a

(B)      III – f

(C)      VI – a

(D) III – a

  1. The admonition……. about their behaviour on the pitch was ignored.

(A) I – a

(B) VII – b

(C) VI – g

(D) IV – c

Directions (Q. 12 – Q. 13): Following are the questions based on the same words used as different parts of speech. Choose the correct matches.

  1. Back

Noun – a. The back portion of the house is in dilapidated condition.

Adverb – b. In a coalition government a number of parties back the single largest party to form the government.

Adjective – c. There is a road at the back of the theatre.

Verb – d. She has come back from America.

(A)      1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d

(B) 1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a

(C)      1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b

(D) 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4c

  1. Near

Adjective – a. Draw near while I speak to you.

Verb – b. There is a mango tree near our house.

Adverb – c. Lajwanti is a near relative of mine.

Preposition – d. I am nearing the end of the given work.

(A)      1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b

(B) 1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a

(C)      4-c, 1-b, 2-d, 3-a

(D) 3-c, 2-b, 1-a, 4-d

Directions (Q. 14 – Q. 16): Observe the following sentences where some changes are made in the sentence but keeping the sense of the sentence same. In the following questions, the sentences have some element of similarity. You have to find out the similarity and choose the option which is odd one out.

  1. (A) His behaviour displeased his officers.

His officers were displeased at his behaviour.

(B)      One must respect one’s elders.

One’s elders must be respected.

(C)      I said, “Do not speak of the past.”

I advised him not to speak of the past.

(D)     A crash radio message was handed over to me. They handed over a crash radio message to me.

15.(A)  I don’t expect to see him back here.

I don’t expect that I will see him back here.

(B)      In spite of his poverty, he is satisfied.

He is poor but he is satisfied.

(C)      He gave them not only food but some money also. Besides food, he gave him some money also.

(D)     Escaping arrest, he ran away.

He ran away in order to escape arrest.

  1. (A) The teacher was strict but always loving.

Though the teacher was strict, she was always loving.

(B) He is very rich and can buy a car.

He is so rich that he can buy a car.

(C) He ran hard but missed the bus.

Although he ran, he missed the bus.

(D) You know what my errand is.

You know my errand.

Direction (Q. 17 – Q. 22): Choose the sentence which is correct grammatically.

  1. (A) “Mr. Sharma has conveyed his heart-felt thanks to the Principal of the school and its management for their support to the cause of children with special needs.”

(B)      “The government was adviced to take immediate steps”.

(C)      This colt will make a good mare.

(D)     Is your mother the executrix of this deed?

  1. (A) You have fallen in bad company.

(B)      Please run through the book.

(C)      He set everything to naught.

(D)     He is calling you a bad name.

  1. (A) All of the reptiles lay eggs.

(B)      Waiting in the queue for half an hour, Jay suddenly realised that he had left his wallet at home.

(C)      ‘Do you think Meena will remember your birthday? ’ ‘I suspect not.’

(D)     The coffee in this coffee shop is the best one in town.

  1. (A) He has a shave every morning, but you wouldn’t think he had.

(B)      Supposing you don’t get the job – what will you do then?

(C)      The strikes were mainly concerned about working conditions.

(D)     She is quite younger than me.

  1. (A) Because I’d lost my watch, so I was late for the meeting.

(B)      She lives in 38 Middle Street.

(C)      He’d left his papers all across the room.

(D)     There have been many problems with the new bridge.

22 (A) I had to go into work even though I was feeling terrible.

(B)      Competition entries must be received until 12.00 on 10 August.

(C)      Why on earth were you waving that knife around? What were you thinking about?

(D)     Do you care if I smoke a cigar?

Direction (Q. 23 – Q. 26): Choose the alternative which best expresses the meaning of the idiom/ phrase in the question.

  1. Purple Patch

 (A) a dark period     (B) a period of success

(C) safe way to royalty         (D) mending old ties

  1. French Leave

 (A) an insulting defeat          (B) a time of revelry

(C) leave without permission (D) a great deception

  1. Hang out to dry

 (A) to desert one in troubling situation (B) to ridicule

(C) a time of truce    (D) be critical of

  1. Down to the wire

 (A) digging deep       (B) no chance of error

(C) in great details     (D) until the last moment

Directions (Q. 27 – Q. 29): Replace the underlined word/words with one of these two- or three-word verbs in an appropriate form.

  1. If I tell you the secret, you must promise not to tell anyone else.

(A) let in on   (B) bring in

(C) put down to        (D) shoot down

  1. They’re going to suffer a lot of criticism for increasing bus fares by so much.

(A) put down to        (B) gather up

(C) come in for         (D) put up with

  1. It’s best to attribute his bad mood to tiredness and just forget it.

(A) flick through        (B) put down to

(C) take on    (D) see through

Direction (Q. 30 – Q. 35): Choose the best word to fill in the blanks

  1. Owing to the combination of its proximity and……….. atmosphere, Mars is the only planet in our solar system whose surface details can be discerned from the Earth.

(A) viscous     (B) ossified

(C) rarefied    (D) copious

  1. Using the hardships of the Ganguli family as a model, Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake effectively demonstrated how one clan’s struggles epitomized the…….. experienced by an entire community.

(A) reticence  (B) quiescence

(C) verisimilitude       (D) tribulation

  1. The Pyramid of Giza is more than just…….. edifice; this imposing structure was built to create a chirping echo whenever people clap their hands on the staircase.

(A) a venerable         (B) a specious

(C) a prosaic  (D) a humble

  1. Some wealthy city-dwellers become enchanted with the prospect of trading their hectic schedules for a bucolic life in the countryside, and they buy property with a pleasant view of farmland – only to find the stench of the livestock so……. that they move back to the city.

(A) bovine      (B) atavistic

(C) olfactory  (D) noisome

  1. When Sheena brought home the irascible puppy, her more quiescent dogs were rattled by their new……… housemate.

(A) languid      (B) bellicose

(C) diminutive (D) phlegmatic

  1. Despite the vast amount of time Tarun dedicated to learning six different languages, he was ……. communicator; his mastery of vocabulary and grammar failed to redress his inability to redress his inability to construct cogent prose.

(A)      an astute        (B) a prolific

(C)      a maladroit     (D) a florid


  1. Bru Settlement is regarding Bru refugee crisis and it was entered between:

(A)      Central Government, Tripura, Mizoram and Reang Tribe

(B)      Central Govt. and Indian Coffee Trade Association

(C)      Tripura, Mizoram and Reang Tribe

(D)     Central Government, Indian Coffee Trade Association and Reang Tribe

  1. Which Movie won the Best Picture in 92nd Academy Awards 2020?

(A)      Joker   (B) Parasite

(C) Jojo Rabbit (D) Once Upon a Time in Hollyood

  1. Which State in India tops the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) India Index 2019?

(A) Kerala      (B) Gujarat

(C) Andhra Pradesh   (D) Himachal

  1. Which of the following statements is not correct about the Blue Dot Network (BDN)?

(A)      Blue Dot network is an initiative to grade the infrastructure projects in terms of debt, environment safety, labour standards, etc.

(B)      The Blue Dot Network project is being led by USA, Japan and Australia.

(C)      BDN offer public funds or loans for the project.

(D)     It is expected to serve as a globally recognised evaluation and certification system with a focus on the Indo-Pacific region.

  1. Who among the following is not a recipient of Padma Vibhushan Award 2020?

(A) Sushma Swaraj     (B) George Fernandez

(C) ArunJaitley          (D) TeejanBai

  1. Which of the following from India is included in the SCO list of eight wonders of the world?

(A) Soho House        (B) Statue of Unity

(C) Signature Bridge  (D) Ajanta Caves

  1. Which of the following statements on Bond Yields is /are true?

I.           Yield from Government Bond is always lower than yields from corporate bonds.

II.         When the economy is in recession, the Bond Yields usually tends to decrease.

III.       Government Bonds are known as Treasury Bills in India.

IV.       When the Bond price increases then Bond Yield decreases.

(A) II, IV         (B) I, III

(C) I, II, III      (D) I, II, III, IV

  1. Which of the following first-ever talked about the concept of ‘ Sustainable Development’?

(A)      Earth Summit 1992    (B) Kyoto Protocol

(C)      Paris Summit  (D) Brundtland Report

  1. In Global Democracy Index 2019, which of the following criteria is the main reason for India’s sliding ranking?

(A)      Electoral process and pluralism

(B)      Civil liberties

(C)      Functioning of government

(D)     Political participation

  1. From which of the following sites, the female skeleton 16614 is recovered whose DNA sequencing has revealed that the people in the Indus Valley Civilization have an independent origin?

(A) Ganveriwala        (B) Mohenjo-Daro

(C) Dholavira (D) Rakhigarhi

  1. Tishreen Revolution of 2019 is regarding:

I.          Corruption

II.         unemployment

III.       inefficient public services

IV.         to stop Iranian intervention in Iraq

(A) I, II (B) II, III

(C) I, IV         (D) I, II, III, IV

  1. The term Cytokine Storm is related to which of the following?

(A) Earth’s Weather  (B) Human body’s Immune system

(C) Atomic energy    (D) Space Exploration

  1. What is the main reason of people’s protest in Hong Kong in 2019-20?

(A)      Unemployment         (B) Economic slow down

(C)      Extradition law          (D) labour laws

  1. Which of the following is/are not true about the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)?

I.         India is an observer to OIC.

II.         Only Muslim majority states are members to the body.

III.       It is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nation.

IV.         The recent summit of the OIC was held in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

(A) I, II, III, IV  (B) I, II, III

(C) I, II (D) III, IV

  1. Who won the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism?

(A) Ravish Kumar      (B) Dibang

(C) Sudhir Chaudhary          (D) Rahul Kanwal

  1. Who is the writer of the patriotic song Saare Jahan Se Accha ?

(A) Allama Mohd. Iqbal         (B) Rabindra Nath Tagore

(C) Bankim Chandra Chatteijee       (D) Kavi Pradeep

  1. Apple has started a credit card named “Apple Card” in collaboration with which of the following companies?

(A) MasterCard         (B) CitiBank

(C) American Express          (D) Goldman Sachs

  1. India has signed the Singapore Convention on Mediation in 2019. It is regarding –

(A)      Cross-border river disputes

(B)      Cross-border commercial disputes

(C)      Terrorism

(D)     War crimes

  1. Consider the following statements:

I.           The Administer, appointed by the President, is the constitutional head of the Union Territory.

II.         The relationship of the Union Territories with the Central Government is a part of the federal structure.

Which of the abovementioned statements is/are correct?

(A) I only       (B) II only

(C) I, II (D) None

  1. Where is the Nine Dash Line located?

(A) South China Sea   (B) North Atlantic Ocean

(C) Arctic Ocean      (D) East Philippine Sea

  1. What is the duration of Solar Cycle?

(A) 100 years (B) 6 months

(C) 11 years   (D) 12 months

  1. Which city in the World is declared the Most Liveable City in 2019?

(A) Melbourne          (B) Vienna

(C) Sydney     (D) Osaka

  1. The Central Board of Secondary Education has collaborated with which of the following companies for developing Artificial Intelligence (AI) based tools for learning in schools?

(A) IBM         (B) Google*

(C) Intel         (D) Wipro

  1. Who has said “How dare you? You have stolen my dreams, my childhood with your empty word.”?

(A) Malala Yousafzai   (B) Greta Thunb erg

(C) Jaden Anthony     (D) Martinez

  1. Sound cannot travel through

(A) Gas          (B) Liquid

(C) Metal       (D) Vacuum

  1. The chemical component which is found in most of the virus is –

(A)      Protein          (B) Lipids

(C)      DNA   (D) RNA

  1. Ajanta Caves depicts paintings and sculptures from which of the following?

(A)      Panchtantra Tales      (B) Animals

(C)      Jataka Tales    (D) dance forms

  1. In which of the following countries, a law to criminalize fake news came into effect in October 2019?

(A)      Singapore       (B) Finland

(C)      China  (D) India

  1. ‘Singularity’ has been in the news in the context of the Black Hole image. It refers to which of the following?

(A)      Gravitational waves generated by the merger of Black Holes.

(B)      The boundary around a Black Hole, beyond which no light or other radiation can escape.

(C)      It is a stage in the life-cycle of a star.

(D)     It is the centre of the Black Hole, which contains a huge mass in an infinitely small space, where density and gravity become infinite.

  1. Who has been elected as the Speaker of the 17th Lok Sabha?

(A) Rjiv Gauba          (B) Om Birla

(C) Adhir Ranjan Chowdhary          (D) Sumitra Mahajan

  1. Who among the following became youngest ever elected Member of Parliament in India?

(A) Dushyant Chautala         (B) Tejasvi Surya

(C) Chandrani Murmu          (D) Raksha Khadse

  1. Who has been appointed India’s first Lokpal?

(A) Justice (retd.)Pinaki Chandra Ghose      (B) Shri. Suresh Mathur

(C) Justice (retd.) A. D. Koshal        (D) Justice (retd.) A.K. Sikri

  1. Who has been declared the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, 2019?

(A)      Abhijit Baneijee

(B)      Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, President of Egypt

(C)      Greta Thunberg, Climate Activist

(D)     Abiy Ahmed Ali, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia

  1. The Neelakurinji flower, which grows after a period of 12 years, grows in which of the following areas?

(A) The Andaman and Nicobar Islands        (B) Lakshadweep

(C) The Western Ghats       (D) Arunachal Pradesh

  1. Which of the following Statements correctly relates to ‘Pink Tax’?

(A)      It is a tax legally imposed on women in some countries.

(B)      It is a tax imposed legally, the proceeds of which go for the development of women.

(C)      It is the name of the phenomenon wherein women pay more for women specific goods and services.

(D)     It is a kind of tax relief given for women specific products.


Directions: Given below is a statement of legal principle followed by a factual situation. Apply the principle to the facts given below and select the most appropriate answer. Directions (Q. 71 – Q. 74): Apply the legal principles to the facts given below and select the most appropriate answer. Legal Principles:

  1. Negligence is a legal wrong that is suffered by someone at the hands of another who has a duty to take care but fails to take proper care to avoid what a reasonable person would regard as a foreseeable risk.
  2. The test of liability requires that the harm must be a reasonably foreseeable result of the defendant’s conduct, a relationship of proximity must exist and it must be fair, just and reasonable to impose liability.
  3. The claimant must prove that harm would not have occurred ‘but for’ the negligence of the defendant.
  4. Duty of care is a legal obligation which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others.
  5. Conversations between a doctor and patient are generally confidential but there are few exceptions.
  1. A company called KLM, manufacturers of electrical equipment, was the target of a takeover by ABS Industries. KLM was not doing well. In March 2019, KLM had issued a profit warning, which had halved its share price. In May 2019, KLM’s directors made a preliminary announcement in its annual profits for the year up to March. This confirmed that the position was bad. The share price fell again. At this point, ABS had begun buying up shares in large numbers. In June 2019, the annual accounts, which were done with the help of the accountant Dinesh, were issued to the shareholders, which now included ABS. ABS reached a shareholding of 29.9% of the company, at which point it made a general offer for the remaining shares, as the City Code’s rules on takeovers required. But once it had control, ABS found that KLM’s accounts were in an even worse state than had been revealed by the directors or the auditors. It sued Dinesh for negligence in preparing the accounts and sought to recover its losses. This was the difference in value between the company as it had and what it would have had if the accounts had been accurate. Which of the following answers in incorrect?

(A)      No duty of care had arisen in relation to existing or potential shareholders. The only duty of care the auditor’s owed was to the governance of the firm.

(B)      Dinesh is not liable as it is a case of pure economic loss in the absence of contractual agreements between parties.

(C)      There are circumstances where an auditor will owe a duty of care in respect of reports produced. These are conditional that at the time the report is prepared it is known by the auditors that the results are for a specific class and for a specific purpose.

(D)     An ability to foresee indirect or economic loss to another person as the result of a defendant’s conduct automatically impose on the defendant a duty to take care to avoid that loss.

  1. In 2005, the local council of Delhi approved building plans for the erection of a block of apartments. The approved plans showed the base wall and concrete foundations of the block to be three feet or deeper to the approval of local authority. The notice of approval said that the bylaws of the council required that notice should be given to the council both at the commencement of the work and when the foundations were ready to be covered by the rest of the building work. The council had the power to inspect the foundations and require any corrections necessary to bring the work into conformity with the bylaws, but was not under an obligation to do so.

The block of apartments was finished in 2006. The builder (who was also the owner) granted 99-year leases for the apartments, the last conveyance taking place in 2010. In 2017 structural movements occurred resulting in failure of the building comprising cracks in the wall, sloping of the floors and other defects. In 2019, the plaintiffs who were lessees of the apartments filed cases for negligence against the builder and the council.

The plaintiffs claimed that the damage was a consequence of the block having been built on inadequate foundations, there being a depth of two feet six inches only as against the three feet or deeper shown on the plans and required under the bylaws. The plaintiffs claimed damages in negligence against the council for approving the foundations and/or in failing to inspect the foundations. Decide whether the council owed a duty of care to the claimants in respect of the incorrect depth of the foundations laid by the third-party builder?

(A)      The Council is not liable for damages to the plaintiff as failing to inspect would not render the council liable unless it was considered that it had failed to properly exercise its discretion to inspect and that they had failed to ensure proper compliance with building regulations.

(B)      The Council is liable for negligence as they failed to inspect the foundation.

(C)      There is no negligence in building the apartments as there is minor difference between a foundation which is three feet deep and a foundation which is two feet six inches deep.

(D)     The     tenets has a duty to inspect the property properly before entering into such a long lease agreement.

  1. Soman was the student of PRQ University. He met Pamela in a youth festival and fell in love with her. However, Pamela was not interested in having any serious relationship with Soman. Due to this, Soman went into emotional crisis and started consulting a psychologist in the PRQ Memorial Hospital. In October 2018, Soman murdered Pamela. Pamela’s parents contended that only a short time prior, Soman had expressed his intention to murder their daughter to his therapist, Dr. Surana, a psychologist employed by the University. They further alleged that Dr. Surana had warned campus police of Soman’s intentions, and that the police had briefly detained him, but then released him. Pamela’s parents filed a case of negligence against the Police Department and the University officials on two grounds: the failure to confine Soman, in spite of his expressed intentions to kill Pamela, and failure to warn Pamela or her parents. Defendants maintained that they owed no duty of care to the victim, and were immune from suit. Which of the following is incorrect?

(A)      The police did not have the requisite proximity or special relationship with family of Pamela, sufficient to impose a duty to warn her of Soman’s intention.

(B) The public policy favoring protection of the confidential character of patient psychotherapist communications must yield to the extent to which disclosure is essential to avert danger to others. The protective privilege ends where the public peril begins.

(C) The therapists and Regents of University are liable for breach of duty to exercise reasonable care.

(D) Soman only once expressed the desire to kill Pamela. Such kinds of feelings are normal in any mentally ill patient. Moreover, information received during a counselling session is confidential in nature and so therapists cannot reveal it to the parents of Pamela.

  1. R, T and U were watchmen in Skypark Society. They were on night shift and began vomiting after drinking tea. They went to the SEM Hospital and complained to the nurse about it. The nurse thought they were vomiting because of alcohol they had been drinking earlier in the evening. However, the nurse reported it to the medical officer who refused to examine them and said that they needed to go home and contact their own doctors. They returned to their workplace, where U’s condition deteriorated. U died of arsenic poisoning five hours later on way to hospital.

U’s wife brought a claim of negligence against the hospital administration. She argued that the hospital was negligent in not identifying that U had been poisoned, and the doctor should therefore have seen to him when they first approached the hospital. The hospital denied they were negligent, and in any event said they did not cause his death. Decide.

(A)      The hospital is not liable for negligence because even if the patient was examined five hours earlier to the death he would have died anyways. The test of causation was not satisfied. The Hospital did not cause U’s death – But for the defendant’s negligence, U would have died anyways.

(B)      It        was highly possible that the doctor would have identified U’s condition as arsenical poisoning, and therefore U would have received the treatment he needed to survive.

(C)      Where there are a number of possible causes, the claimant must still prove the defendant’s breach of duty caused the harm or was a material contribution.

(D) Both (A) & (C)

  1. Legal Principle: Generally, the owner of the property has a duty to maintain his property so as to make it reasonably safe for use. However, the occupier also owes a duty to take such care as is reasonable to see that the visitor is reasonably safe in using the premises for the purposes for which he is invited or permitted by the occupier to be therein.

Facts: Sheila is a painter. She went to her friend Ruchi’s house for meeting her. Sheila requested to use the bathroom and injured her right hand on a broken water faucet handle. Sheila filed a personal injury action for hand injuries suffered alleging that Ruchi failed to warn her that her bathroom fixtures were cracked and dangerous. Ruchi says she had complained to the landlord about the broken handle so the landlord is liable. Decide whether the Sheila’s injury the proximate cause of Ruchi’s negligence?

(A)      A licensee or social guest was obliged to take the premises as he or she found them, and the possessor of the premises owed a duty only to refrain from wanton or wilful injury.

(B)      The landlord is liable as Ruchi had complained to the landlord about the broken handle and it is the duty of the landlord to get the repair work done.

(C)      Ruchi is not liable as the use of toilet is not the purposes for which Sheila was invited or permitted by the occupier to be therein.

(D)     Ruchi owes a duty to warn of a dangerous condition so the guest can take special precautions, like the host would, when they come in contact with it.

  1. Legal Principle: Intimidation involves a threat to do something unlawful or ‘illegitimate’; it must be intended to coerce the claimant to take or not take certain action.

Facts: Hari, a skilled draughtsman and employee of the Overseas Airways Corporation (OAC), resigned his membership of the Association of Engineering and Shipbuilding Draughtsmen (AESD), a registered trade union. It was agreed between OAC and AESD (among others) that no strike or lockout should take place and disputes should be handled by arbitration. He resigned from his union, the Association of Engineering and Shipbuilding Draftsman (AESD), after a disagreement. The Corporation and AESD had a contract that stipulates that the employer will only hire workers from a specific union and those workers can only remain with that employer while they are a part of the union so AESD threatened a strike unless Hari resigned also from his job or was fired. Corporation suspended Hari and, after some months, dismissed him with one week’s salary in lieu of notice. Hari brought an action for damages alleging that he was the victim of a tortious intimidation. Decide.

(A)      The union was guilty of the tort of intimidation. It was unlawful intimidation to use a threat to break their contracts with their employer as a weapon to make him do something which he was legally entitled to do but which they knew would cause loss to Hari.

(B)      The     Union was not guilty of intimidation as no unlawful means were used to induce Corporation to terminate his contract of service.

(C)      There was a contract between Union and Corporation that stipulates that the employer will only hire workers from a specific union and those workers can only remain with that employer while they are a part of the union so the Union is not liable.

(D) Hari cannot claim damages as he was paid one week’s salary in lieu of notice.

  1. Legal Principles:

A deceit occurs when a misrepresentation is made with the express intention of defrauding a party, subsequently causing loss to that party.

“Misrepresentation” means and includes— the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true; any breach of duty which, without an intent to deceive, gains an advantage of the person committing it, or any one claiming under him, by misleading another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of any one claiming under him; causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement, to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.

Fact: XY Company in its prospectus stated that the company was permitted to make engines that were powered by electricity, rather than by fuel. In reality, the company did not possess such a right as this had to be approved by the Government Board. Gaining the approval for such a claim from the Board was considered a formality in such circumstances and the claim was put forward in the prospectus with this information in mind. However, the claim of the company for this right was later refused by the Board. The individuals who had purchased a stake in the business, upon reliance on the statement, brought a claim for deceit against the defendant’s business. Decide.

(A)      The company is liable for false representation as their claims were eventually turned out to be false.

(B)      The company is liable as their false statements has resulted in causing loss to the shareholders.

(C)      The company is not liable as the statement in its prospectus was simply incorrect and not fraudulent.

(D)     The shareholders should have collected as much information regarding the company as possible before purchasing a stake in it.

  1. Legal Principles:

Private nuisance is a continuous, unlawful and indirect interference with the use or enjoyment of land, or of some right over or in connection with it.

Generally, nuisances cannot be justified on the ground of necessity, pecuniary interest, convenience, or economic advantage to a defendant.

A person is liable if he can reasonably foresee that his acts would be likely to injure his neighbour.

In cases of nuisance, the court may grant an injunction restricting the nuisance from occurring in the future when the loss could not adequately compensated.

Facts: Tina purchased a house in an estate which was adjacent to a functioning, in use, cricket field. The members of Super Eleven Cricket Club used to play Cricket in that field for over 70 years. After Tina moved into the property, cricket balls began to fly over the field’s protective barrier and into the Tina’s property. Tina complained, which caused Super Eleven Cricket Club to erect ^chain link fence. This improved matters as less balls were now flying onto the Tina’s property but it did not fully solve the issue as some still got through. The club offered Tina to pay for any damage done or injuries received as a result of the balls landing onto her land, including fixing any broken windows and similar. Tina, however, refused all of the club’s offers and filed a case against the members of the Club alleging nuisance and negligence and requested court to grant an injunction to prevent the club from playing cricket on their ground. Tina argued that even though the club offered to make good any damage and that there had been no injuries, she was not able to use her garden when matches were being played for fear of being struck by a cricket ball. Decide.

(A)      The members of Club are not liable as Tina was aware about the activities of the Cricket Club and had willingly purchased the property.

(B)      The members of the Club are liable for nuisance and court should pass an order of compensation as the injury is small and could be compensated in terms of money. Also, public interest considerations outweighed the private rights of the plaintiff and therefore a remedy of damages was sufficient in the circumstances.

(C)      The members of the Club are liable for nuisance and court should pass an order of injunction. The plaintiff’s right to enjoyment of her property outweighs the right of the members of the Club to play cricket.

(D)     The     Club is not liable as they have already taken sufficient measures to mitigate the effects of their act and are ready and willing to do so in future too.

  1. Legal Principles:

According to rule of strict liability, any person who for his own purposes brings on his lands and collects and keeps there anything likely to do mischief if it escapes, must keep it in at his peril, and, if he does not do so, is prima facie answerable for all the damage, irrespective of fault, which is the natural consequence of its escape in respect of the non-natural use of land.

A person is liable if he can reasonably foresee that his acts would be likely to injure his neighbour.

Facts: PN was the owner of a gas pipe which passed under the surface of an old railway between Ramnagar and Kotpur. XY was the local council which was responsible for a water pipe which supplied water to a block of flats in the nearby Shining Apartment Complex. A leak developed which was undetected for some time. The water collected at an embankment which housed PN’s high pressure gas main. The water caused the embankment to collapse and left the gas main exposed and unsupported. This was a serious and immediate risk and PN took action to avoid the potential danger. They then sought ‘o recover the cost of the remedial works. PN argued that the XY Council was liable for negligence under strict liability.

(A) The Council is liable under strict liability rule as the damage is not remote as it was possible for the Council to reasonably foresee a leakage which would eventually lead to collapse of the gas main.

(B) The escape of water as a result of leak is sufficient to make the Council liable.

(C) The Council is not liable as PN should have been careful in detecting the leak earlier. They cannot shift the blame on the Council.

(D)     The Council is not liable under rule of strict liability for the damage as the Council’s use was neither a non- natural nor dangerous use of the land.

  1. Legal Principles:

When the negligent act of two or more person results in the same damage, it is called composite negligence. The liability in such a case is joint and several of the tort-feasers.

A person is liable if he can reasonably foresee that his acts would be likely to injure someone.

The foreseeability of the type of damage is a pre-requisite of liability.

The claimant must prove that harm would not have occurred ‘but for’ the negligence of the defendant.

Facts: Zara filed a civil suit against five drug manufacturing companies. Zara’s mother took synthetic estrogen while pregnant with her. As a result of receiving the drug in-utero, Zara developed cancer as an adult. The drug was manufactured by the Defendants, five major drug companies and by about 195 other companies not named in the suit. The Defendants together produced 90% of the drug. Zara is unable to identify which company produced the actual drug her mother took. Decide whether the Defendants only can be held liable for Zara’s cancer.

(A)      No, as the industry responsible for the production of this drug is large, so holding only the defendants responsible is not correct.

(B) Yes, as defendant joins a substantial share of the manufactures into the lawsuit, the chances of the actual tort-feasor escaping liability is greatly reduced.

(C) No, as defendants can be made liable if he can reasonably foresee that his acts would be likely to injure someone.

(D) No, Zara is not entitled to any damages as the drugs her mother was administered were needed at that time and her mother had taken the medicines voluntarily. Zara developed cancer after so many years and she must prove that harm would not have occurred ‘but for’ the negligence of the defendants.

    81. Legal Principles:

Any intentional false communication, either written or spoken, that harms a person’s reputation; decreases the respect, regard, or confidence in which a person is held; or induces disparaging, hostile, or disagreeable opinions or feelings against a person.

The statement must tend to lower the claimant in the estimation of right-

Defamation encompasses both written statements, known as libel, and spoken statements, called slander.

A public official or public figure can recover damages for defamation on a matter of public concern only if he proves that the speaker acted with actual malice.

Facts: In 2018, a police officer, Suresh Singh, shot and killed Dayal. After the officer was convicted of culpable homicide not amounting to murder, Dayal’s family retained a lawyer, Kaushal, to represent them in civil litigation against the officer. In a magazine called Indian Opinion, the Anti-Communist Society accused Kaushal of being a “Naxalite” and a “Communist-fronter” because he chose to represent clients who were suing a law enforcement officer. Because the statements contained serious inaccuracies, Kaushal filed a libel action against the editors of the magazine. Decide whether he will succeed.

(A)      No, as it is mere vulgar abuse.

(B)      The statement may be defamatory but the editors of the magazine are not liable unless Kaushal is able to establish actual malice in making the statement.

(C)      No, as the statement does not tend to lower Kaushal in the estimation of right-thinking members of society and print media is known for such type of journalism.

(D)     Yes, as statement is defamatory and Kaushal is not required to establish actual malice to successfully bring a claim of defamation.

  1. Legal principle: A contract may, in some circumstances, be discharged by a breach of contract. Where there exists a breach of condition this will enable the innocent party the right to repudiate the contract (bring the contract to an end) in addition to claiming damages.

Facts: In April, Sagar Tour &Travels agreed to employ Hiten as his courier for three months from 1 June 2020, to go on a trip around the European continent. On 11 May, Sagar Tour & Travels wrote to say that Hiten was no longer needed. On 22 May, Hiten sued Sagar Tour & Travels for breach of contract. Sagar Tour & Travels argued that Hiten was still under an obligation to stay ready and willing to perform till the day when performance was due, and therefore could commence no action before June 1, 2020.

(A) A breach of contract by renouncing the duty to perform the future obligation does not render the party liable immediately to a suit of action for damages by the injured party.

(B) The renunciation of a contract of future conduct by one party immediately dissolves the obligation of the other party to perform the contract.

(C) Hiten has suffered no harm and the offer can be revoked anytime before June 1, 2020 so he cannot claim any damages.

(D) A contract for future conduct do not constitutes an implied promise that, in the meantime, neither party will prejudice the performance of that promise.

  1. Legal Principle: An agreement between two private parties that creates mutual legal obligations. A contract can be either oral or written.

Facts: Mr. Ram and Mr. Rahim were work colleagues who had an arrangement regarding shared lifts to work. Rahim would drive his motorbike and Ram would ride pillion in return for a weekly sum of money. Unfortunately both were killed in a road traffic accident and the wife of Mr. Ram made a claim for damages against the estate of Mr. Rahim. However Rahim’s insurance policy did not cover pillion passengers and as his estate had no assets or money to satisfy the judgment, Mrs. Ram pursued the Motor Insurance Bureau (MIB).

The MIB have an agreement whereby accidents and consequential claims would be satisfied by the Government in circumstances where the driver has no relevant policy of insurance. Hoover the rules covering this situation require Mr. Ram was carried for “hire or reward”. Ram argues that there was a contract in place between Ram and Rahim for the lifts to work. Decide whether there was a contract so as to make Mrs. Ram eligible for claim from MIR

(A) Notwithstanding the regular payment of money in return for the lift, it was not a legal obligation as to create a contract. There were no terms as to how long this was to last, what would happen in default of payment or the availability of transport, or anything written down so as to at least make their intention clear.

(B) Yes, there was clearly an offer of transport and this was accepted. In addition, the consideration exchanged by the parties was the service of transport and the money paid by Ram.

(C) Yes, the practice of agreements between colleagues sharing a lift to work (or “car-pooling”) is an accepted and wide spread practice. Parties will usually agree that one will take their car and in return the others will make a contribution towards the petrol costs.

(D) No, unless the wife of Ram can show that the accident happened due to rash and negligent driving of Rahim.

  1. Legal Principles:

Offer is a proposal made by one person to another to do an act or abstain from doing it. The person who makes the offer is known as the promisor or offeror and the person to whom an offer is made is known as the promisee or the offeree.

A contract comes into being by the acceptance of an offer. When the person to whom the offer is made signifies his consent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted and the parties are at consensus ad idem regarding the terms of the agreement.

Facts: Mr. Kumar visited the Holiday Bliss Hotel. He had not made an in advance booking and upon arrival requested a room for the night. He signed the register and there was no mention at that stage of any other terms or conditions that might impact upon his stay at the hotel. During the course of his stay Mr. Kumar discovered that someone had broken into his room and stolen certain property including a coat. Kumar filed a case of negligence on the Hotel administration. Nevertheless, the Hotel sought to rely upon an exclusion clause that was placed in the bedroom the claimant stayed in. This stated that the hotel would not accept liability for lost or stolen items belonging to customers. Decide whether the exclusion clause that was displayed in the bedroom constituted a valid term of the contract.


(A) The contract was made when Kumar signed the register at the reception and so the acceptance of the offer mean acceptance of all the terms of the offer.

(B) There is a valid contract between Kumar and Hotel and the Hotel has taken reasonable steps to bring exclusion clause to Kumar’s attention in the room.

(C) Terms must be brought to the attention of the customer, consumer or party against whom they are trying to be enforced at the moment the contract was entered into. Kumar was not given notice of this exclusion clause until he had already entered into the contract and therefore it was unenforceable against him.

(D)     Though the terms must be brought to the attention of the customer, consumer or party against whom they are trying to be enforced at the moment the contract was entered into. But, such type of clauses are generally part of all contracts and customers should be aware of such exclusion of liability clauses.

  1. Legal Principles:

When one person signify to another person his willingness to do or not do something (abstain) with a view to obtain the assent of such person to such an act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal or an offer.

The communication of the offer is complete when it comes to the knowledge of the person to whom it is made.

Communication of acceptance is complete when it is put in the course of transmission to him as to be out of the power of the acceptor to withdraw the same and when it comes to the knowledge of the proposer.

In case of the proposer, the communication of the acceptance is complete when he puts such acceptance in the course of transmission.

The communication in case of the acceptor is complete when the proposer acquires knowledge of such acceptance.

An offer may be revoked at any time before the communication of its acceptance is complete as against the proposer, but not afterwards.

Facts: G offered to sell the L fleeces of wool for a certain price. G requested that the response be made by post. This letter was misdirected by G so that it was not received for 3 days after it was sent. L decided to accept the offer and responded on the same day. This was posted on the 5th July but not received until the 9th July. However, G decided on the 8th July that as he had not received a response so decided to sell the wool to someone else. But L argued that a contract had been created as he had accepted their offer. Decide.

(A)      No contract was formed as L accepted the offer even before he received the offer by post. Contract will be entered upon when L had received the offer and then written to him saying that the terms were agreed.

(B) The contract was entered on the 9th September when the acceptance was received by G.

(C) G is free to withdraw his offer before 9th September.

(D) The contract was entered on the 5th September when the acceptance was posted, not when it was received.

  1. Legal Principles:

In order to convert a proposal into a promise the acceptance must be absolute and unqualified.

Acceptance must be expressed in some usual and reasonable manner, unless the proposal prescribes the manner in which it is to be accepted. If the proposal prescribes a manner in whicffcit is to be accepted, and the acceptance is not made in such manner, the proposer may, within a reasonable time after the acceptance is communicated to him, insist that his proposal shall be accepted in the prescribed manner, and not otherwise; but, if he fails to do so, he accepts the acceptance.

Facts: TUV’s employee performing installation on Motorola’s premises was injured due to the negligence of Motorola employees. TUV had executed a purchase order that contained an indemnity form. First purchase order contained indemnity provision which narrowly applied to damages caused by the negligence of TUV’s employees. It attached a broader indemnity form page which would make TUV also responsible for the negligence of Motorola employees in connection with the work. This page was marked VOID. Amendment 2 to Purchase order contained same provision and attached same additional indemnity form which this time was not marked VOID. But also contained the additional language that “acceptance should be executed on acknowledgement copy which should be returned to the buyer.” Employee was injured several months before the acknowledgement copy of the second purchase order was executed, but was in the course of performing work related to the second purchase order. Decide whether TUV liable under the broader indemnity provision.

(A)      TUV is liable as workers have sustained injury during the course of their employment even though TUV has not accepted the amended purchase order as it did not execute the acknowledgement.

(B)      Motorola’s      amendment gave a suggested mode of acceptance which did not preclude TUV’s acceptance by another method. TUV accepted when TUV undertook performance of the work called for by the amendment with the “consent and acquiescence” of Motorola.

(C)      TUV is not liable under the broader indemnity provision as it didVot execute the acknowledgement copy until several months after the employee sustained his injury.

(D)     TUV is not liable as commencement of work was acceptance to the first purchase order in which the broader indemnity provision was marked as void.

  1. Legal Principles:

A contract can become void when: It is unfairly one-sided; it goes agai ist public policy; its subject matter is illegal; it is impossible to perform; it unfairly restricts one side’s actions (such as the right to work); one of the parties is not legally competent to enter into a binding contract.

A contract is void as against public policy if: (1) it is a contract by the defendant to pay the plaintiff for inducing a public official to act in a certain manner; (2) it is a contract to do an illegal act; or (3) it is a contract that contemplates collusive bidding on a public contract.

Facts: BR Industries, a company manufacturing drills, machine parts and components thereof and a purchaser of subcontract work from other suppliers, won the bid from the HLK Company to supply certain parts to it at a specified price. BR industries then contracted with SU Co. to supply the parts urder the contract for a much lower price. BR Industries then intended to keep the difference between the amount it billed the HLK Company and the amount SU Co. charged for the parts. BR Industries initiated an action for breach of contract when SU Co. failed to complete the order. In its defense, SU Co. asserts that the contract is void as against public policy because Defendant turned a profit of 84.09% on anvils, 39.13% on holder primers and 68.33% on plunger supports. Did plaintiff receive too much compensation deeming it unconscionable and against public policy?

(A) The contract is void as against public policy as it is a contract that

contemplates collusive bidding on a public contract.

(B) The Contract is void as it unfairly one sided.

(C) Relative values of the consideration in a contract between business men at “arms-length” without fraud will not affect the validity of the contract.

(D) Relative values of the consideration in a contract between business men will affect the validity of the contract as it amounts to abuse of dominance and unconscionable.

  1. Legal Principles:

Offer is a proposal made by one person to another to do an act or abstain from doing it. The person who makes the offer is known as the promisor or offeror and the person to whom an offer is made is known as the promisee or the offeree.

A contract comes into being by the acceptance of an offer. When the person to whom the offer is made signifies his consent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted and the parties are at consensus ad idem regarding the terms of the agreement.

Facts: In Dec. 2019, a convicted murderer who was sentenced to death escaped from the custody of Ramesh, a prison official. Ramesh later offered a reward of INR 50,000 to anyone who captured the fugitive and returned him to the authorities. In Jan. 2020, without knowledge or notice of the reward, Sunil captured the fugitive and took him to Ramesh’s jail house. Ramesh refused Sunil’s demands for the reward money. Sunil filed a case against Ramesh to recover the reward. Ramesh alleges that there is no contract between Ramesh and Sunil.

(A) A mere offer or promise to pay did not give rise to a contract. Rather, the assent or meeting of two minds gave rise to a contract, and therefore it was not complete until the offer was accepted. Having notice or knowledge of the existence of the reward when he captured the fugitive is essential to his right to recover the reward offered by Ramesh.

(B) The act of capturing the fugitive was acceptance of the offer of reward through conduct and so a valid contract is entered upon.

(C) There was an offer by Ramesh and acceptance by Sunil and it is immaterial whether Sunil had notice or knowledge of the existence of the reward when he captured the fugitive.

(D) Such an offer, like the reward here, could be accepted by anyone who performs the service called for, when the acceptor knows that it has been made and acts in performance of it.

  1. Which of the following States have passed a Bill providing for life imprisonment and fine up to INR 5 Lakhs against accused in case of mob lynching leading to death of the victim?

(A) Madhya Pradesh   (B) Rajasthan

(C) Uttar Pradesh      (D) Haryana

  1. The strength of Judges in Supreme Court of India has been increased from 31 to

(A)      34       (B) 38

(C)      33       (D) 35

  1. In September 2019, High Court of………has held that the right to have access to the internet is part of fundamental right to education and right to privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution of India.

(A)      Delhi   (B) Madhya Pradesh

(C)      Kerala (D) Mumbai

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Delimitation Commission?

I.         It determines the number and boundaries of constituencies to make population of all constituencies nearly equal.

II.         The orders of Delimitation Commission have the force of law and can be challenged in a court of law.

III.       Constitution of India has put a freeze on fresh delimitation until 2025.

IV.         The constitution has also capped the number of Lok Shaba & Rajya Sabha seats to a maximum of 550 & 250 respectively

(A) I, II, III, IV

(B) I, II, III


(D) I, IV

  1. The Enemy Property Act applies to the property of which of the following?

(A)      people who took citizenship of China & Pakistan

(B)      people who took citizenship of Bangladesh, China & Pakistan

(C)      people who took citizenship of Bangladesh & China

(D)     people who took citizenship of China & Myanmar

  1. Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 provides for which of the following powers to prevent the spread of an epidemic disease?

I.         Inspection of person

II.         detention of persons

III.       penalties for disobeying provisions of the Act under Section 188, 269 & 271  Indian Penal Code

IV.         legal protection of implementing officers

(A)      I, II, III, IV       (B) I, II, III

(C)      I, II, IV (D) I, III, IV

  1. Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Adaptation of State Laws) Second Order 2020 under J&K Civil Services (Decentralization and Recruitment) Act provides for which of the following:

I.         Anyone who has lived in the Union Territory of J&K for at least 10 years is a domicile.

II.         Anyone who has studied there for at least seven years and appeared in Class X or Class XII examinations in any school in the region is a domicile.

III.       Anyone who is registered as a migrant by the Relief and Rehabilitation Commissioner (Migrants) in the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir is a domicile.

IV.         A domicile of the UT shall be eligible for appointment to any post with a pay scale of not more than Level-4 under the UT or any local authority within the territory.

(A)      II, III    (B) I, II, III

(C)      I, IV     (D) II, III, IV

  1. Which of the following statements regarding Anti-defection Law is/are incorrect?

I.         Grounds of disqualification on ground of defection are provided in the 10th Schedule to the Constitution.

II.         If 1/3rd of the members of the political party defect from it than it is not defection.

III. Decision of the Speaker regarding disqualification of a member under Anti-Defection Law cannot be challenged in a court of law.

IV.         A legislator is deemed to have defected if he disobeys the directives of the party leadership on a vote.

(A) I, II,

(B) I, II, IV


(D)     I, II, III, IV

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Ordinance, 2020?

I.         The Ordinance seeks to increase competition in the agriculture sector and enhance farmers’ income.

II.         The Ordinance requires that imposition of any stock limit on certain specified items must be based on price rise.

III.       The provisions of the Ordinance regarding the regulation of food items and the imposition of stock limits will apply to any government order relating to the Public Distribution System or the Targeted Public Distribution System.

IV.         Recently, sanitizers, masks and oxygen cylinders are included under the Act till June 30, 2020.

(A) I, II, III

(B) I, II


(D) only I

  1. Recently, the Supreme Court of India has held that women officers are also entitled to Permanent Commission in

(A)      Indian Navy              (B) Indian Army

(C)      Indian Air Force        (D) all of these

  1. In February 2020, the Supreme Court has held that reservations in promotion, in government jobs, is not a fundamental right and refused to give directions to provide reservations to the government of which of the following States?

(A)      Uttarakhand   (B) Jharkhand

(C)      Kerala           (D) Delhi

  1. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendments Act?

(A)      No arrest can be made without prior permission.

(B)      No anticipatory bail can be granted to the accused under the Act.

(C)      The Police must file an FIR and arrest the accused on receiving the complaint.

(D)     The offences under the Act are cognizable.

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019?

I.         The Act does not apply to tribal areas of Tripura, Mizoram, Assam and Meghalaya but apply to all other states and UTs in India.

II.         The Act provides that that no order of cancellation of registration shall be passed unless the Overseas Citizen of India Cardholder has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

III.       The Act increases the period of naturalisation for such group of persons from six years to eight years.

IV.         The Act applies to those who were “forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion”. It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration.

(A) I, IV


(C) I, III, IV

(D) II, IV

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding preventive detention?

I.         National Security Act as well as Article 22, Constitution of India provide for preventive detention in certain cases

II.         Maximum duration in case of preventive detention can be till 12 months

III.       In case of preventive detention, accused has the right to be informed about the grounds of arrest at the time of arrest.

IV.         In case of preventive detention, accused has no right to be represented by a lawyer.

(A) I, II


(C) I, III, IV

(D) I, II, IV

  1. Which of the following countries joined the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2019?

(A)      Turkey                    (B) Malaysia

(C)      Myanmar        (D) India

  1. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act grants citizenship to the Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhist, Jains and Parsis — from……… who had arrived in India before

(A)      Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh; 31 December 2014

(B)      Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh; 31 December 2014

(C)      Myanmar, Pakistan and Tibet; 31 December 2011

(D)     Afghanistan, Pakistan and Myanmar; 31 December 2011

  1. Which of the following countries have abolished flogging as a form of punishment in April 2020?

(A)      Indonesia        (B) Maldives

(C)      Saudi Arabia   (D) Singapore


Direction (Q. 106 – Q. 112): Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below.

Sonu has to deliver seven parcels containing different items- Medicine, Book, Stationery, Grocery, Cosmetics, Clothe and Chocolate – to houses on different floors of a building, one parcel each to a house. The seven floors of the building are numbered consecutively 1 through 7. Delivery of parcels to houses must meet the following conditions:

  1. Medicine is delivered on a lower numbered floor than Grocery.
  2. Clothe is delivered at one level below the floor at which Book is delivered.

iii.       Stationery is delivered at first floor or else seventh floor.

  1. Chocolate is delivered at fourth floor.
  1. There can be at most how many floors between the floor at which Medicine is delivered and the floor at which Grocery is delivered?

(A)      Two

(B)      Three

(C)      Four

(D)     Five

  1. If Clothe is delivered at floor 1, which of the following could be true?

(A)      Book   is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Grocery is delivered.

(B)      Book   is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Cosmetics is delivered.

(C)      Medicine is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Stationery is delivered.

(D)     Cosmetics is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Book is delivered.

  1. Which one of the following is an acceptable assignment of parcels to the floors in the building, in order from floor 1 through 7?

(A)      Medicine, Clothe, Cosmetics, Chocolate, Book, Grocery, Stationery

(B)      Stationery, Cosmetics, Chocolate, Clothe, Book, Medicine, Grocery

(C)      Stationery, Clothe, Book, Chocolate, Grocery, Medicine, Cosmetics

(D)     Medicine, Cosmetics, Grocery, Chocolate, Clothe, Book, Stationery

  1. If Cosmetics is delivered at floor 2, which one of the following must be true?

(A)      Medicine is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Chocolate.

(B)      Chocolate is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Grocery.

(C)      Grocery is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Stationery.

(D)     Clothe is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Grocery.

  1. If Cosmetics is delivered on floor 5, which one of the following is a pair of parcels that could be delivered, not necessarily in the order given, at floors whose numbers are consecutive to each other?

(A)      Book, Grocery

(B)      Clothe, Chocolate

(C)      Stationery, Grocery

(D)     Book,  Stationery

  1. If Book is delivered at one floor below the floor at which Medicine ^delivered, then which one of the following must be true?

(A)      Cosmetics is delivered on fifth floor.

(B)      Medicine is delivered on third floor.

(C)      Stationery is delivered on first floor.

(D)     Clothe is delivered on fifth floor.

  1. It must be true that the lowest numbered floor on which

(A)      Book   can be delivered on third floor.

(B)      Medicine can be delivered on second floor.

(C)      Cosmetics can be delivered on third floor.

(D)     Grocery can be delivered on second floor.

Directions (Q. 113 – Q. 116): Read the following information carefully to answer the following questions.

  1. ‘X + Y’ means that ‘X is the mother of Y’.
  2. ‘X – Y’ means that ‘X is the sister of Y’.

III.       ‘X x Y’ means that ‘X is the father of Y’.

  1. ‘X ÷ Y’ means that ‘X is the brother of Y’.
  1. If it is given ‘B + D x M ÷ N’, then how is M related to B?

(A) grand-daughter    (B) son

(C)      grand-son       (D) daughter

  1. Which of the following represent ‘ J is the son of F’?

(A) J -÷ R-T x F         (B) J + R- T x F

(C)      J ÷ R-N x F    (D) none of these

  1. Which of the following represent ‘R is the niece of M’?

(A) M ÷ K x T-R       (B) M-J + R-N

(C)      R- M x T ÷ W          (D) M + T x K ÷ R

  1. If it is given ‘B x D – M’, then which of the following is true?

(A)      B is the brother of M (B) B is the sister of M

(C)      B is the uncle of M    (D) B is the father of M

Direction (Q. 117 – Q. 121): Read the given information carefully and answer the following questions.

Vidya, Umesh and Tanu are sitting around a circular table. Arun, Bina and Chetan are sitting around the same table but two of them are not facing centre (they are facing the direction opposite to centre). Vidya is second to the left of Chetan. Umesh is second to the right of Arun. Bina is third to the left of Tanu. Chetan is second to the right of Tanu. Arun and Chetan are not sitting together.

  1. Which of the following is not facing centre?

(A)      Bina & Arun

(B)      Chetan & Vidya

(C)      Bina & Chetan

(D)     Arun & Umesh

  1. Which of the following is the position of Tanu in respect of Bina?

(A)      third to the right       (B) second to the right

(C)      third to the left         (D) third to the left & right, both

  1. What is the position of Vidya in respect of Chetan?

(A)      second to the right

(B)      third to the left

(C)      fourth to the right

(D)     fourth to the left

  1. Which of the following statement is correct?

(A)      Arun, Bina and Chetan are sitting together

(B)      Vidya, Umesh and Tanu are sitting together

(C)      Only two people are sitting between Vidya

(D)     Those who are not facing centre are sitting together

  1. What is the position of Arun in respect of Umesh?

(A)      second to the left

(B) second to the right

(C)      third to the right

(D) none of these

Directions (Q. 122 – Q. 123): In each of the following questions is given a statement followed by two conclusions. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of these logically follows beyond reasonable doubt from the given information.

Give answer

(A)      if only Conclusion I follows

(B)      if only Conclusion II follows

(C)      if both exclusions I and II follow

(D)     if neither Conclusion I nor II follows

  1. Statement – The use of non-conventional sources of energy will eliminate the energy crisis in the world.

Conclusion I – Modern technology is gradually replacing the conventional source of energy.

Conclusion II – The excessive exploitation of environment has led to the depletion of conventional source of energy.

  1. Statement – Computer advertisements now fill magazine pages but the real computer revolution in India is taking place quietly and is a likely organisation of Government.

Conclusion I – Both the Central and State Government are computerizing rapidly. Conclusion II -The Government does not fill the magazine pages with its computer advertisements.

Direction (Q. 124 – Q. 125): Each of these questions consists of a pair of words bearing a certian relationship. From among the options, find out the one that best illustrates a similar relationship.

  1. LOM : NMK : : PKI: ?

(A) RIG         (B) RM

(C)      SHG    (D) RHG

  1. ABCD : OPQR : : WXYZ : ?

(A) EFGH       (B) STUV

(C)      KLMN (D) QRST

Direction (Q. 126 – Q. 127): Find the one that does not belong to the group.

  1. (A) GMS (B) EKQ

(C)      JOU (D) LRX



  1. If in a certain code language ‘TEMPERATURE’ is written as ‘BZQDYXVBNXZ’, then how will ‘RAMP’ be written in that language?

(A) XVQD     (B) XVDQ

(C)      XQVD (D) XDVQ

  1. In a certain coding system,’JUNE’ is written as ‘PQRS’ and ‘AUGUST’ is written as ‘WQFQMN’. How will ‘GUEST’ be written in that coding language?


(C)      FQSMN         (D) FQSNM

  1. A clock is set right at 5 am. The clock loses 16 minutes in 24 hours. What will be the right time when the clock indicates 10 pm on the 3rd day?

(A) 11:15 pm  (B) 11pm

(C)      12 pm (D) 12:30 pm

  1. The minute hand of a clock overtakes the hour hand at intervals of 65 minutes of the correct time. How much does a clock gain or lose in a day?

(A) 10 10/143 minutes (gain) (B) 10 10/143 minutes (loss)

(C)      9 10/143 minutes (gain)        (D) 9 10/143 minutes (loss)

  1. If a day before yesterday was Tuesday, then what day of the week will it be on a day after tomorrow?

(A)      Monday          (B) Wednesday

(C)      Friday  (D) Saturday

  1. If 15th August, 2017 was Tuesday, then what day of the week was it on 17th September, 2017?

(A)      Sunday (B) Saturday

(C)      Friday  (D) Thursday

  1. Tia and Renu both are walking away from point ‘X’. Tia walked 3 m and Renu walked 4 m from it, then Tia walked 4 m North of X and Renu walked 5 m South of Tia. What is the distance between them now?

(A) 9.5 m

(B) 9 m

(C) 16 m

(D) 11.40m

  1. Tanaya travelled 4 km straight towards South. He turned left and travelled 6 km straight, then turned right and travelled 4 km straight. How far is he from the starting point?

(A)      8 km   (B) 10 km

(C)      12 km (D) 18 km

Directions (Q. 136 – Q. 140): Read the following short passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow each passage.

  1. Therapists have just completed an extensive study of recently delinquent juveniles in order to determine which factors contributed most to the delinquency. The researchers found that in a great majority of the cases of delinquency, the parents met, on average, fewer than 4 times per week with their children. From this data, the therapists have determined that a failure to spend time together with the children is a major factor leading to delinquency.

Which one of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the researcher’s hypothesis?

(A)      Parents and children in the study who reported that they met each other more than four times per week also indicated that they tended to perceive their relationships as healthy.

(B)      In many cases, people in unhappy family tend to express their displeasure by avoiding contact with each other when possible.

(C)      Most of the families in the study who were unable to meet often with each other worked outside of the home.

(D)     Many families who have a long and strong family bonding met each other fewer than four times per week.

  1. Several coaching centres have recently switched at least partially from study material written by hand on printer paper from study material written on a computer and sent electronically with no use of paper at all. Therefore, less printer paper will be used as a result of these changes than would have been used if these coaching centres had continued to use handwritten study materials.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?

(A)      The amount of printer paper needed to explain the electronic study material is less than the amount that would have been used for handwritten material.

(B)      Coaching centres that used more printer paper were more likely to switch to electronic materials than centres that used less printer paper.

(C)      Some of the Institutes that have switched at least partially to electronic study material still primarily used printer paper for other operations.

(D)     More printer paper was used to create manuals for the use of electronic study materials than was used to write handwritten materials.

  1. In visual media, it’s possible to induce viewers to project their feelings onto characters on the screen. In one study, a camera shot of a girl’s face was preceded by images of a still river. The audience thought the girl’s face registered contentment. When the same girl’s face was preceded by images of a mighty and violent tsunami wave, the audience thought the girl’s face registered fear. Media news teams must be careful to avoid such manipulation of their viewers.

Which of the following is best supported by the information in the passage?

(A)      The technique for manipulating audiences described in the passage would also work in an audio program that played dramatic music.

(B)      Audiences should strive to be less gullible.

(C)      Images of a still river engendered feelings of happiness in the audiences.

(D)     The expression on the woman’s face was, in actuality, blank.

  1. Although measuring the productivity of outsourced workers is a complex endeavor. Company X, which relies heavily on outsourced workers, must find ways to assess the performance of these workers. The risks to a company that does not review the productivity of its human resources are simply too great. Last year, Company Y was forced into receivership after its productivity declined for three consecutive quarters.

The clauses in the italics in the above paragraph, play which of the following roles in the argument above?

(A)      The first clause in italics express a position, and the second warns against the adoption of that position.

(B)      The first clause in italics represents the author’s conclusion, and the second supports the conclusion with an analogy.

(C)      The first clause in italics states the author’s premises, and the second states the author’s conclusion.

(D)     The first clause in italics provides background information, and the second offers evidence to contradict that information.

  1. A telephonic poll conducted in two states asked respondents whether they get adequate water during summers. Ninety-nine percent of respondents said their houses were having running water through-out the day. The pollsters published their findings, concluding that ninety-nine percent of all homes in India have adequate water for use.

Which of the following most accurately describes a questionable technique employed by the pollsters in drawing their conclusions?

(A)      The pollsters conducted the poll by telephone, thereby relying on the veracity of respondents.

(B)      The pollsters never defined the term “adequate” in terms of a specific quantity of water.

(C)      The pollsters didn’t visit respondent’s houses in person, so no measure of adequacy of water during summers in a subject’s house was actually made.

(D)     The poll assumes conditions in the two states are representative of the entire country.


  1. If the third and the tenth term of an arithmetic progression are 14 and 56, respectively, then the arithmetic mean of the first 15 terms of the arithmetic progression is

(A) 40 (B) 44

(C)      80       (D) 34

  1. Ronnie has a bag containing 7 red and 9 green balls. From it, he draws out 6 balls simultaneously at random. The probability that 4 of them are red and the rest are green is

(A) 24/143     (B) 45/286

(C) 155/2001  (D) 302/1005

  1. City A is connected to City B by four highways and City B is ‘onnected to City C by three highways. Kesari wants to travel from City A to City C via City B. In how many ways, Kesari can do it?

(A) 4   (B) 7

(C) 10 (D) 12

  1. The number of integral values of x satisfying the inequation |x| < 4 is

(A) 7   (B) 8

(C)      9         (D) 10

  1. If the price of each book goes up by Rs. 5, then Asha can buy 20 books less for Rs. 1200. Find the original price and the number of books Asha could buy at the original price.

(A) Rs.  25, 50

(B) Rs.  20,60

(C) Rs.  15, 80

(D) Rs.  10,90

  1. If 2^x = 7^y= 14^z , then find the value of z in terms of x and y.

(A) x +y/ x -y           (B) xy/ x + y

(C)      x + y + xy      (D) xy-(x+y)

  1. Bhiku borrowed some money from Dhanraj to admit his daughter in a reputed Law School. He agreed to pay the interest-free loan of Rs. 60, 000 in a monthly installments which increased by a constant amount. After the 20th installment, he found that he has paid 3/4 of the loan. If the entire loan was cleared this way in 25 installments, find out the value of the first installment.

(A) Rs.  1560  (B) Rs.  1067

(C) Rs.  1680  (D) Rs.  1987

  1. A vessel contains an 80% alcohol solution. 20% of the solution was removed and replaced with water. If this process is repeated, find the percentage of alcohol which remains in the solution.

(A) 64%         (B) 51.2%

(C)      50.6%  (D) 45%

  1. Arsh takes up a job, wherein each working day he is given a target. For each day, he meets the target he is paid Rs. 105 and for each day he does not meet the target he is paid Rs. 18 less. If by the end of a month, he is paid total of Rs.  2988, then how many days does he meets the target?

(A) 21 (B) 12

(C)      10       (D) 14

  1. A fruit vendor purchases two varieties of oranges at the rates of 12 oranges for Rs. 18 and 18 oranges for Rs. 12. He mixes the two varieties in the ratio of 2 : 3 and sells the mixed stock at a price of Rs. 144 for 10 dozens. What percentage of profit or loss does he make?

(A) 26 3/4%    (B) 34 1/4%

(C)      20%     (D) 28%

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